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Research Article | Volume 4 Issue 2 (April-June, 2024) | Pages 1 - 6
Evolution of Anti –TPO Serum Levels, Anti-Sperm Antibodies and Some other Parameters in Female COVID-19 Vaccinated
 ,
 ,
 ,
1
Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, Tikrit University, Iraq, 34001
2
Ministry of Education, Salah El-din General directorate/Open Educational College, Salah El-Din Study Center, Tikrit, Iraq, 34001
3
Kirkuk General Hospital, 36001 Iraq
4
Ministry of Education, Al-Mahzam Secondary School for Girls
Under a Creative Commons license
Open Access
Received
Feb. 12, 2024
Revised
Feb. 24, 2024
Accepted
March 28, 2024
Published
April 30, 2024
Abstract

The challenges that happened during the COVID-19 pandemic are preventing infection and synthesizing vaccines against these viral infections. Thyroid peroxidase is antithyroid microsomal antibodies. The presence of antibodies to thyroid peroxidase pointing to an autoimmune disorder. Anti-sperm antibodies  are identified in sera of women sub-fertility for unknown reasons.  Materials and methods : Biochemical measurements of thyroids hormones levels by AFIAS-10 instrument. Anti-TPO by Maglumi 800 instrument and Anti-sperm antibodies measured by ELISA kit from My Biosource.  Results & Discussion : There were no significant changes in T3 and T4 levels . A highly increase in TSH and anti-TPO levels in women previous infected and vaccinated group against COVID-19 group compared with women don’t infected and without vaccination group and infected women without vaccination group, and a significant increase  in infected women without vaccination group compared with women don’t infected and without vaccination group. There was a highly significant increase in anti- sperm ng/mL concentration in women previously infected and vaccinated against COVID-19 group compared with women not infected and without vaccination and infected women without vaccination group. 

Keywords
Anti-TPO
Anti- sperm
Copeptin
Vaccinated women.
Introduction

In China , in December 2019, a coronavirus (COVID-19) (SARS-CoV-2) appeared,  triggering a group of acute diseases in respiratory  [1,2]. SARS-CoV-2 as other viruses, change with time or mutate. The consequences of these changes and mutations result in a difference in the rates of disease spread and also the severity of the disease (3).  There were a number of challenges that happened during the COVID-19 pandemic to get rid of an infection and synthesis vaccine against these viral infections. To strengthen immunity and prevent infection, they developed vaccines taken as two doses [4,5]. 

 

Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is an enzyme that is reliable for the iodination of tyrosyl residues incorporation in thyroglobulin [6]. It is known as the microsomal antigen due to its intracellular location. Its specific autoantigens are anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO) that present in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD)  [7]. AITD can damage  thyroid cells and competitively inhibit enzymatic activity [8].

 

When the immune system doesn't recognize the auto antigens (self-antigens) from non autoantigens that are known as autoimmunity and are relatively more in women than men. The  dysfunction in any member in organ systems , autoimmune and reproductive system diseases,  neurologic manifestations, Several systemic illnesses, and any  severe illness can be affected in a woman's fertility [9, 10]. Anti-sperm antibodies (ASAs) (immunoglobulins of IgG, IgA, and/or IgM) are identified in males and females with unexplained subfertility [11].

Material and Methods

Samples were taken of 30 women not infected and without vaccination (G1), 30 infected women without vaccination (G2) , and  30 women previously infected and vaccinated against COVID-19 (G3). All patients in G3 were positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus RT-PCR test, while G1 and G2 were negative for the RT-PCR test. Biochemical measurements of thyroid hormone levels by AFIAS-10 . Anti-TPO by Maglumi 800 instrument and ASAs measured by ELISA kit from My Biosource. Statistical Analysis was done by XLSTAT statistical package software.

Results
  1. Thyroids hormones 

 The mean (±SD) of T3,T4,TSH and Anti-TPO IU/mL concentration in serum of G1, G2 and G3 groups are illustrated in table (1) . There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in T3 and T4 levels  . A high increase (P<0.001) in TSH and Anti-TPO levels in G3 compared with G1 and G2 , and a significant increase (P<0.01) in G2 compared with G1 .

 

Table (1) : The Mean of Thyroids hormones  for studied Groups

Mean ± SD

Parameters/Groups

G3

G2

G1

1.68± 0.13

1.74± 0.25

1.93± 0.25

T3  nmol/L

94.7± 9.9

96.3± 6.7

102.1± 14.11

T4  nmol/L

3.76± 0.17

2.51± 0.12

2.29± 0.11

TSH  µIU/ml

167.7± 9.5

22.8± 0.25

16.3± 1.4

Anti-TPO IU/mL

P value

G2/G3

G1/G3

G1/G2

Parameters

>0.05

>0.05

>0.05

T3

>0.05

>0.05

>0.05

T4

<0.001

<0.001

>0.05

TSH

<0.001

<0.001

<0.01

Anti-TPO

 

Virus entered into the cell by ACE2 receptors  , and all cells that express ACE2 receptors  are vulnerable to injury for this virus. As a result of the high presence of ACE2 receptors and its high expression in the thyroid gland, the thyroid gland is highly susceptible to this infection. The types of thyroid disorder are not yet fully expressed or described [12].

 

In a study conducted on 50 cases of people infected with Covid-19, it was found that there were thyroid gland imbalances in 60% of cases [13].

 

Several theories mechanism for the causing thyroid autoimmunity disorders caused by viruses: (1) the virus make changes in the expression of self-antigen, or by cryptic epitopes; (2) It can cause inflammation through several mechanisms, including cytokine release, which leads to the activation of autologous T cells, this mechanism is known as the bystander mechanism: (3)  leading mechanisms that were link between viral , thyroid and autoimmunity (molecular mimicry) ;and   (4) the effect of heat shock proteins [14,15].

 

Among the  pathogenic mechanisms in COVID-19 t :The Immune dysregulation  and increased pro-inflammatory agent like cytokines, which are similar to those of autoinflammatory diseases [16]. 

 

Also, COVID-19 vaccines may lead to thyroiditis [17]. In addition to infection with the virus, the vaccine against this virus also causes immune thyroid infections (autoimmune reactions) by the same mechanisms that occur in the case of infection. Also, a hypothesis has been put forward that the adjuvants in vaccines may cause inflammation of the thyroid gland, which contributes to the emergence of “autoimmune syndrome.” [18].

 

The mechanism by which the vaccine affects the thyroid gland (post-vaccination subacute thyroiditis) is still unclear. The possible mechanism for the vaccine's effect on the thyroid gland is a  cross-reaction between the spike protein of the Covid-19 vaccines and thyroid cell antigens [19].

 

A number of cases of inflammation of the thyroid gland (subacute thyroiditis) that happen after vaccination against COVID-19 have been found in recent research [20-25]. Şahin Tekin et al. [22] and Vera-Lastra O et al. [26] have also reported a case of subacute following CoronaVac vaccine, due to the effect of virus antigens and supporting proteins present in the vaccine .

 

  1. Anti-sperm 

The mean (±SD) of Anti- sperm ng/mL concentration in serum of women control group and primary hypothyroidism in all groups are illustrated in table (2) . There was a highly significant increase (P<0.001) in G3 compared with G1 and G2.

 

Table (2) : The Mean of Anti- sperm for studied Groups

Mean ± SD

Parameters/Groups

G3

G2

G1

62.3± 1.9

11.3± 0.19

9.2± 0.8

Anti- sperm ng/mL

P value

G2/G3

G1/G3

G1/G2

 

<0.001

<0.001

>0.05

Anti- sperm

 

Another study showed presence of a pathogenic effect of virus on female Reproductive system, Follicular microvasculature, and ovarian antral folliculogenesis,  by altering the follicular fluid content and oocyte quality [27]. Also, correlation with the level of Immunoglobulin G to virus in the albuminous fluid in the follicular antrum and the number optimal numbers of mature oocytes leads to COVID-19 can negatively affect health  outcomes cryopreservation it looks like to have the protease system to be sensitive to virus [28,29].

 

According to a study by Sacchi M. C. et al., SARS-CoV-2 infection  is associated with autoantibodies [30].

 

 Some studies showed that COVID-19 vaccines cause irregular periods and induce period changes with unusual menstrual signs [31],  and other study found following vaccination retrospective disturbances occurred [32]. Some female have isoimmunity or autoimmunity against sperm, which cause infertility by production of ASAs [33,34]. ASAs, and other autoantibodies like antiphospholipid, are linked with infertility [35]. The effect of autoantibodies on reproduction was a reduction in spontaneous pregnancies [36,37].

Conclusion

The results indicate that the COVID-19 vaccine may have negative consequences on the immune and reproductive systems in women and that may explain the currently widespread cases of secondary infertility in future.

References
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