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Go Back       IAR Journal of Medical Sciences | IAR J Med Sci, 2(3), | Volume 2: Issue:3 ( May 20, 2021 ) : 31-41
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DOI : 10.47310/iarjms.2021.v02i03.006       Download PDF       HTML       XML

Dreams and Its Interpretation and Applicability in Homoeopathy


Article History

Received: 20.04.2021 Revision: 30.04.2021 Accepted: 10.05.2021 Published: 20.05.2021


Author Details

Bikash Biswas*1, Sanjukta Mandal2 and Madhumita Nath1


Authors Affiliations

1PGT Dept of Case taking and Repertory, Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homoeopathic Medical College & Hospital, West Bengal, India

2PGT Dept of Materia Medica, Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homoeopathic Medical College & Hospital, West Bengal, India


Abstract: Dreams are a series of thoughts, images, and sensations occurring in a person’s mind during sleep especially in REM sleep pattern. As per Sigmund Freud “The interpretation of dreams is the royal road to knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind”. His book has been the precursor to many hypothesis and concepts and research into dreams and its significance. As per Carl c Jung, he saw dreams as the psyche’s attempt to communicate important things to the individual. His model of psyche is an idea of dreams which arise from ego. His many books with different volumes are a vast source of significance and interpretation of dreams. Dreams are influenced by the past and present experiences and sometimes are determinative of future. Different types of dreams have been interpreted based on fear, threat, insecurities, being vulnerable, struggle, frustration, wishes, sexuality, need for change in perception and individuality, etc. though few dreams are forethought to be the admonition sign and may impact personality of the person. Dreams have been found to have strong neurophysiological relationship with mid brain structures dealing with memory and human emotions. In Homoeopathy dreams are considered to be the inner essence of individual in a subconscious level and have an implication to the understanding of the state of mind and concealed will and desires, leading to help in selection of the similimum. In this review article, analysis of dreams and its homoeopathic applicability has been elucidated.


Keywords: Dreams, Interpretation, Sigmund Freud, Carl c Jung, Persona, Homoeopathy, Repertory.


ABBREVIATIONS: REM- Rapid eye movement, NREM- Non rapid eye movement, CNS- Central nervous system


INTRODUCTION:

Sleep are the natural periodic state of rest for mind and body with closed eyes characterized by partial or complete loss of consciousness. Loss of consciousness leads to decreased response to external stimuli and decreased body movements. Depth of sleep is not constant throughout the sleeping period. It varies in different stages of sleep (Sembulingam. K., & Sembulingam, P. 2012). Sleep requirement is not constant. However, average sleep requirement per day at different age groups (Sembulingam. K., & Sembulingam, P. 2012). New born infants: 18 to 20 hours, Growing children: 12 to 14 hours, Adults: 7 to 9 hours, Old persons: 5 to 7 hours. Sleep is of two types, 1. Rapid eye movement sleep or REM sleeps 2. Non-rapid eye movement sleep, NREM sleep or non-REM sleep (Sembulingam. K., & Sembulingam, P. 2012). Rapid eye movement sleep (REM), Rapid eye movement sleep is the type of sleep associated with rapid conjugate movements of the eyeballs, which occurs frequently. Though the eyeballs move, the sleep is deep. So, it is also called para-domical sleep. It occupies about 20% to 30% of sleeping period. Functionally, REM sleep is very important because, it plays an important role in consolidation of memory. Dreams occur during this period (Sembulingam. K., & Sembulingam, P. 2012). Non-rapid eye movement sleep –non-(REM) sleep, Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is the type of sleep without the movements of eyeballs. It is also called slow-wave sleep. Dreams do not occur in this type of sleep and it occupies about 70% to 80% of total sleeping period. Non-REM sleep is followed by REM sleep (Sembulingam. K., & Sembulingam, P. 2012).


DREAMS:

A dream is succession of images, ideas, emotion, sensation, that usually occurs involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep (Dream”. 2009). The content and function of dreams are not fully understood although they have been a topic of scientific philosophical and religious throughout recorded history. Dream interpretation is the attamed at drawing meaning from dreams and searching for underlying message. The scientific study of dreams is called “Oneirology” (Kavanau, J.L. 2000).


Sleep disorders: Insomnia, is the inability to sleep or abnormal wakefulness. It is the most common sleep disorder. It occurs due to systemic illness or mental conditions such as psychiatric problems, alcoholic addiction and drug addiction (Sembulingam. K., & Sembulingam, P. 2012). Nightmare, is a condition during sleep that is characterized by a sense of extreme uneasiness or discomfort or by frightful dreams. Discomfort is felt as of some heavy weight on the stomach or chest or as uncontrolled movement of the body. After a period of extreme anxiety, the subject wakes with a troubled state of mind. It occurs mostly during REM sleep. It occurs due to improper food intake, digestive disorders or nervous disorders. It also occurs during drug withdrawal or alcohol withdrawal (Sembulingam. K., & Sembulingam, P. 2012). Night terror, is a disorder similar to nightmare. It is common in children. It is also called pavor nocturnus or sleep terror. The child awakes screaming in a state of fright and semiconsciousness. The child cannot recollect the attack in the morning. Nightmare occurs shortly after falling asleep and during non-REM sleep. There is no psychological disturbance (Sembulingam. K., & Sembulingam, P. 2012). Other sleep disorders like narcolepsy which is excessive daytime sleepiness, somnambulism which is sleep walking, and nocturnal enuresis are also presented as sleep disorders (Thorpy, M. J. 2012). 


HYPOTHESIS:

Dreams are a source of intertest in the medial field. Various hypothesis was structured and experimented (Cartwright, R. 2013). Dreams in relation to REM sleep characteristics: it was found that, REM sleep that was free of body movement yields continuous dreams. Loss of muscle tone in a relatable signal of REM. It also found out relation between eye movement during REM and the state of the dreamer in his dream. In sparse EM’s the dreamer was passive or just observing (Cartwright, R. 2013). Dream images are internally generated. A various external stimulus was given to find out if these had any effect on the dreamer. But it was found that they had no marked effect. Another study used auditory stimuli of spoken proper names, two of which were emotionally significant and two neutral familiar names had more impact. Auditory stimulus had however more impact than the visual (Cartwright, R. 2013). Dreams related to each other within night. There was no continuity of dreams within the night. Also, they were not related to each other. Further the longer the time awake, the less the continually was in NERM dreams reported were less imagistic and thought like, less emotional and more pleasant as compared to dreams in REM (Thorpy, M. J. 2012). Dreams relate to the pre sleep waking state. The psychological state of the patient greatly influences the dreams that appeared during REM sleep (Cartwright, R. 2013). Dream effects post sleep psychological functions. The study concludes that sleep generally improves morning mood. The first dreams were significantly co related to the previous waking mood. Mild unhappiness led to negative dreams. The varied dream scenarios or context seem to remove the negative mood, which accounts for improve morning mood in healthy persons (Thorpy, M. J. 2012). Dreams differ in psychiatric patients. Nightmare are common in post-traumatic stress disorder. People with severe depression have brief and bland dreams; Moderate depression have dreams with negative feelings (Cartwright, R. 2013). Experimental evidences from normal dream content, children's dreams, recurrent dreams, nightmares, post traumatic dreams, and the dreams of hunter-gatherers indicated that our dream-production mechanisms are in fact specialized in the imitation of threatening events and that’s why dream-production is believed to be the mechanism that tends to select threatening waking events and imitate them over and over again in various combinations which helps in development and maintenance of threat-avoidance skills (Revonsuo, A. 2000). In another study it was reported that recurrent dreams were more likely to include negative elements than positive elements which were themed involving confrontations with monsters or animals, followed by physical aggressions, falling and being chased which were in relation to threat simulation theory (TST) of dreaming (Gauchat, A. et al., 2015).


CONCEPT OF SIGMNUD FREUD (Freud, S. 2020):

Dreams were divided into two classes, the first class, was believed to be influenced only by the present (or the past), and was unimportant in respect of the future; it included the enokinia (insomnia), which directly reproduce a given idea or its opposite; e.g., hunger or its satiation; and the phantasmatic, which elaborate the given idea phantastic ally, as e.g., the nightmare, ephialtes.


The second class of dreams, on the other hand, was determinative of the future.


The Relation of the Dream to the Waking State

The naive judgment of the dreamer on waking assumes that the dream - even if it does not come from another world - has at all events transported the dreamer into another world. "To begin with, the dream continues the waking life. Our dreams always connect themselves with such ideas as have shortly before been present in our consciousness. Careful examination will nearly always detect a thread by which the dream has linked itself to the experiences of the "The content of dreams is always more or less determined by the personality, the age, sex, station in life, education and habits, and by the events and experiences of the whole past life of the individual (Freud, S. 2020)."


The Unconscious and Consciousness. Reality.

When we say that an unconscious thought strives for translation into the preconscious in order subsequently to penetrate through to consciousness, we do not mean that a second idea has to be formed, in a new locality, like a paraphrase, as it were, whilst the original persists by its side; and similarly, when we speak of penetration into consciousness, we wish carefully to detach from this notion any idea of a change of locality. When we say that a preconscious idea is repressed and subsequently absorbed by the unconscious, we might be tempted by these images, borrowed from the idea of a struggle for a particular territory, to assume that an arrangement is really broken up in the one psychic locality and replaced by a new one in the other locality (Freud, S. 2020).


The dream as wish-fulfilment

It is a perfectly valid psychic phenomenon, actually a wish-fulfilment; it may be enrolled in the continuity of the intelligible psychic activities of the waking state; it is built up by a highly complicated intellectual activity (Freud, S. 2020).


Distortion in dreams:

If I now declare that wish-fulfilment is the meaning of every dream, so that there cannot be any dreams other than wish-dreams. Besides those dreams that convey into our sleep the many painful emotions of life, there are also anxiety-dreams, in which this most terrible of all the painful emotions torments us until we wake. Now it is precisely by these anxiety dreams that children are so often haunted and yet it was in children that you found the wish-fulfilment dream in its most obvious form."


The anxiety-dream does really seem to preclude a generalization of the thesis deduced from the examples given in the last chapter, that dreams are wish-fulfilments, and even to condemn it as an absurdity (Freud, S. 2020).


*In hysteria, identification is most frequently employed to express a sexual community. The hysterical woman identifies herself by her symptoms most readily - though not exclusively - with persons with whom she has had sexual relations, or who have had sexual intercourse with the same persons as herself. Language takes cognizance of this tendency: two lovers are said to be "one." In hysterical phantasy, as well as in dreams, identification may ensue if one simply thinks of sexual relations; they need not necessarily become actual. The patient is merely following the rules of the hysterical processes of thought when she expresses her jealousy of her friend (which, for that matter, she herself admits to be unjustified) by putting herself in her friend's place in her dream, and identifying herself with her by fabricating a symptom (the denied wish). One might further elucidate the process by saying: In the dream she puts herself in the place of her friend, because her friend has taken her own place in relation to her husband, and because she would like to take her friend's place in her husband's esteem (Freud, S. 2020).


The material and sources of dreams: Recent and Indifferent Impressions in the Dream (Cartwright, R. 2013). Infantile Experiences as the Source of Dreams (Freud, S. 2020).

As the third of the peculiarities of the dream-content, we have adduced the fact, in agreement with all other writers on the subject that impressions from our childhood may appear in dreams, which do not seem to be at the disposal of the waking memory. It is, of course, difficult to decide how seldom or how frequently this occurs, because after waking the origin of the respective elements of the dream is not recognized (Freud, S. 2020).


The Somatic Sources of Dreams

Exercised on the formation of dreams by a disturbed or impeded digestion ("Dreams come from the stomach"), an accidental position of the body, a trifling occurrence during sleep. He does not seem to suspect that even after all these factors have been duly considered something still remains to be explained (Freud, S. 2020).


Typical Dreams

Generally speaking, we are not in a position to interpret another person's dream if he is unwilling to furnish us with the unconscious thoughts which lie behind the dream-content, and for this reason the practical applicability of our method of dream- interpretation is often seriously restricted. But there are dreams which exhibit a complete contrast to the individual's customary liberty to endow his dream-world with a special individuality, thereby making it inaccessible to an alien understanding: there are a number of dreams which almost everyone has dreamed in the same manner, and of which we are accustomed to assume that they have the same significance in the case of every dreamer (Freud, S. 2020).


The embarrassment-dream of nakedness

The dream of nakedness demands our attention only when shame and embarrassment are felt in it, when one wishes to escape or to hide, and when one feels the strange inhibition of being unable to stir from the spot, and of being utterly powerless to alter the painful situation. It is only in this connection that the dream is typical; otherwise, the nucleus of its content may be involved in all sorts of other connections, or may be replaced by individual amplifications. The essential point is that one has a painful feeling of shame, and is anxious to hide one's nakedness, usually by means of locomotion, but is absolutely unable to do so. As a rule, the deficiency in clothing is not serious enough to justify the feeling of shame attached to it. For a man who has served in the army, nakedness is often replaced by a manner of dressing that is contrary to regulations (Cartwright, R. 2013). The dreamer's embarrassment and the spectator's indifference constitute a contradiction such as often occurs in dreams. In Andersen's fairy-tale we are told of two impostors who weave a costly garment for the Emperor, which shall, however, be visible only to the good and true. The Emperor goes forth clad to this invisible garment, and since the imaginary fabric serves as a sort of touchstone, the people are frightened into behaving as though they did not notice the Emperor's nakedness (Freud, S. 2020).


Dreams of the death of beloved persons

Another series of dreams which may be called typical are those whose content is that a beloved relative, a parent, brother, sister, child, or the like, has died. We must at once distinguish two classes of such dreams: those in which the dreamer remains unmoved, and those in which he feels profoundly grieved by the death of the beloved person, even expressing this grief by shedding tears in his sleep. We may ignore the dreams of the first group; they have no claim to be reckoned as typical.


Ex: The dreamer was a little child- but exactly when cannot be definitely determined- she heard that her mother, during the pregnancy of which she was the outcome, had fallen into a profound emotional depression, and had passionately wished for the death of the child in her womb. Having herself grown up and become pregnant, she was only following the example of her mother (Freud, S. 2020).


The Examination-Dream

Everyone who has received his certificate of matriculation after passing his final examination at school complains of the persistence with which he is plagued by anxiety-dreams in which he has failed, or must go through his course again, etc. These are the ineradicable memories of the punishments we suffered as children for misdeeds which we had committed - memories which were revived in us on the desire. The examination-anxiety of neurotics is likewise intensified by this childish fear. When our student days are over, it is no longer our parents or teachers who see to our punishment; the inexorable chain of cause and effect of later life has taken over our further education. Now we dream of our matriculation, or the examination for the doctor's degree- and who has not been faint-hearted on such occasions? - whenever we fear that we may be punished by some unpleasant result because we have done something carelessly or wrongly, because we have not been as thorough as we might have been- in short, whenever we feel the burden of responsibility (Freud, S. 2020).


Representation in Dreams by Symbols: Some Further Typical Dreams -

It is as though one were to base one's diagnosis of infectious diseases on the olfactory impressions received beside the sick-bed, although of course there have been clinicians to whom the sense of smell- atrophied in most people - has been of greater service than to others, and who really have been able to diagnose a case of abdominal typhus by their sense of smell (Freud, S. 2020).


SYMBOLISM:

Male pattern and Female pattern: (genital organs)

All elongated objects, sticks, tree-trunks, umbrellas (on account of the opening, which might be likened to an erection), all sharp and elongated weapons, knives, daggers, and pikes, represent the male member.


A frequent, but not very intelligible symbol for the same is a nail-file (a reference to rubbing and scraping?). – Small boxes, chests, cupboards, and ovens correspond to the female organ; also, cavities, ships, and all kinds of vessels. A room in a dream generally represents a woman.


The description of its various entrances and exits is scarcely calculated to make us doubt this interpretation. The interest as to whether the room is open or locked will be readily understood in this connection (Freud, S. 2020).


In childhood the female genitals and anus (the "behind”) are conceived of as a single opening according to the infantile cloaca theory, and only later is it discovered that this region of the body contains two separate cavities and openings. Steep inclines, ladders and stairs, and going up or down them, are symbolic representations of the sexual act.


*a woman's hat may very often be interpreted with certainty as the male genitals. In the dreams of men, one often finds the necktie as a symbol for the penis; this is not only because neckties hang down in front of the body, and are characteristic of men, but also because one can select them at pleasure, a freedom which nature prohibits as regards the original of the symbol. Persons who make use of this symbol in dreams are very extravagant in the matter of ties, and possess whole collections of them (Freud, S. 2020).


*Again, many of the landscapes seen in dreams, especially those that contain bridges or wooded mountains, may be readily recognized as descriptions of the genitals.

since men and women are in the habit of fondly referring to their genital organs as little man, little woman, little thing (Freud, S. 2020).


* The little brother was correctly recognized by Stekel as the penis. To play with or to beat a little child is often the dream's representation of masturbation (Freud, S. 2020).


*The fish, the snail, the cat, the mouse (on account of the hairiness of the genitals),


*But above all the snake- which is the most important symbol of the male member. Small animals and vermin are substitutes for little children, e.g., undesired sisters or brothers. To be infected with vermin is often the equivalent for pregnancy. - As a very recent symbol of the male organ (Freud, S. 2020).


*Right and left, are to be understood in dreams in an ethical sense. "The right-hand path always signifies the way to righteousness, the left-hand path the path to crime. Thus, the left may signify homosexuality, incest, and perversion, while the right signifies marriage, relations with a prostitute, etc (Freud, S. 2020).

*Relatives in dreams generally stand for the genitals (Freud, S. 2020).


*so far as we know, have only the male or only the female signification. To use long, stiff objects and weapons as symbols of the female genitals, or hollow objects (chests, boxes, etc.) as symbols of the male genitals, is certainly not permitted by the imagination (Freud, S. 2020).


*It is true that the tendency of dreams, and of the unconscious phantasy, to employ the sexual symbols bisexually, reveals an archaic trait, for in childhood the difference in the genitals is unknown, and the same genitals are attributed to both sexes. One may also be misled as regards the significance of a bisexual symbol if one forgets the fact that in some dreams a general reversal of sexes takes place, so that the male organ is represented by the female, and vice versa (Freud, S. 2020).


*Such dreams express, for example, the wish of a woman to be a man.


The genitals may even be represented in dreams by other parts of the body: the male member by the hand or the foot, the female genital orifice by the mouth, the ear, or even the eye. The secretions of the human body - mucus, tears, urine, semen, etc. - may be used in dreams interchangeably (Freud, S. 2020).


The hat as the symbol of a man (of the male genitals):

A dreamer: I am walking in the street in summer; I am wearing a straw hat of peculiar shape, the middle piece of which is bent upwards, while the side pieces hang downwards (here the description hesitates), I pass a number of young officers I think to myself: You can't do anything to me.


As she could produce no associations to the hat, I said to her: "The hat is really a male genital organ, with its raised middle piece and the two downward-hanging side pieces." It is perhaps peculiar that her hat should be supposed to be a man (Freud, S. 2020).


CONCEPT OF CARL GUSTAV JUNG:

He founded analytical psychology. He saw dreams as the psyche’s attempt to communicate important things to the individual, and are also an important part of the development of the personality – a process that he called individuation.


Jung’s model of psyche (Jung, C.G. 1921)

Jung saw the ego as the center of the field of consciousness which contains our conscious awareness of existing and a continuing sense of personal identity. The ego is the bearer of personality and stands at the junction between the inner and outer worlds.


Jung compared the nature of consciousness to the eye: only a limited number of things can be held in vision at any one time, and in the same way the activity of consciousness is selective.


Persona is a part of the personality which comes into existence ‘for reasons of adaptation or personal convenience’. The Self is the organizing genius behind the personality, and is responsible for bringing about the best adjustment in each stage of life that circumstances can allow. It is most likely initially communicate through dreams. Personal unconsciousness contains temporarily forgotten information and as well as repressed memories. A complex is a collection of thoughts, feelings, attitudes and memories that focuses on a single concept. Each individual develops patterns of unconscious tendencies that derive from repressed emotionally charged (often painful) experiences, especially those that occur in childhood. Collective unconscious is a level of unconscious shared with other members of the human species comprising latent memories from our ancestral and evolutionary past. Shadow carries all the things we do not want to know about ourselves or do not like. It is most easily accessible to the conscious mind.


Anima and animus are two complexes in the personal unconscious. Jung conceived of there being at another psychic level a contra-sexual archetype, designated as anima in the man and animus in the woman. These figures are derived in part from the archetypes of the feminine and masculine, and in part from the individual’s own life experience with members of the opposite sex beginning with mother and father. They inhabit the unconscious depths as a compensation for the one-sided attitude of consciousness and a way of rounding out the experience of belonging to one sex or the other.


Figure Image is available at PDF file

Figure: Jung’s Model of the Psyche


Carl Jung’s Concept of Different Types of Dreams (Bulkelly, K. 2020):

Carl Jung mainly divided the dreams into “big” and “little” dreams.

Little” dreams come from personal unconscious level if we don’t have too many pressing complexes; these little dreams are then continuous with waking thoughts.


Big” dreams revolve around powerful archetypal images from the collective unconscious. They consist of –

  • Mythical parallels in the content or are expressed through symbolism that is widely shared historically and cross-culturally.

  • More emotional, Irrational, bizarre things happen.

  • Less like everyday life (not in the sense of bizarre, but more like far from the usual routines)

  • In addition to “big” and “little” dreams, Jung also thought there were other kinds of dreams Traumatic dreams, now called PTSD dreams;

  • Prospective” dreams, meaning dreams that are “anticipatory” of needed changes (this category is difficult to distinguish from compensatory dreams);

  • Extrasensory dreams, based on telepathy;

  • Prophetic dreams, based on pre-cognition (these are very rare).


INTERPRETATIONS (Merilin, Garrett. 2021):

Attacked by a dog: Usually, the dog is the human’s best friend, and its appearance in a dream often reflects your role as a faithful and loving partner in waking life. You usually give unconditional love to your lover, hoping that they will return equal amounts of love to you. However, you are disappointed when you feel the love isn’t the same (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Airplane crash/accident: Dreaming about an aircraft crash symbolizes that you have concerns about a plan or project in waking life. Usually, the bigger the airplane, the more significant is the plan (Jung, C.G. 1921).


Being stabbed or shot: Dreaming that indicates that in your waking life, you are going through a phase where you are doing something against your will (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Back to school: The interpretation of this dream is that you feel you can learn an essential lesson in your current waking life (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Being chased: The meaning of this dream is that whatever is chasing you, it is an aspect of yourself and your behaviour (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Becoming a friend with a wild animal: This dream interpretation symbolizes an increase in your awareness and understanding of your intuitive nature in waking life. Animals usually symbolize your unconscious needs and your natural impulses. You may often try to keep them under control because you are concerned that they will break free and cause destruction (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Burning building/fire: This dream often indicates the potential for a significant creative transformation in your waking life (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Children in danger: It can be easy to think this dream is a sign, and your child (if you have one) is in actual danger. However, you are using your child as a representative to express an idea that is very precious to you and that you are trying to develop. Dreaming about a child often suggests that you are thinking about a situation that is very close to your heart in waking life (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Climbing uphill: Dreaming of climbing uphill symbolizes that you are working on achieving a particular level of performance in your daily life (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Catching a train: Dreaming of trying to catch a train means that you think of continuing to a different and specific path that is related to your career. The dream is about choosing where you want to go and how to get your ambitions on track (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Dead of a loved one: This dream often means that a definite way of living will end and there will be the start of a new one. The dream message is that you arrived at a point in your life where you have to end a period of activities and consider the new area of chances that are showing up (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Ex-lover: Dreaming an ex usually appears to warn you not to repeat past relationship patterns with your current partner. It appears as an advance to let go of past habits that no longer serve you. Being unusually excited about a new creative idea or project may provoke sexual dreams too (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Falling dream: Dreaming about falling can be a lifestyle side effect. For instance, it could happen because of the day you’ve had, especially if you’re anxious.  The other explanation is that you’re receiving an important message from your subconscious (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


 Flying: The flying dream reflects the feeling of freedom. It shows you are released from some limitations or circumstances that were weighing on you somehow. It could also be that you have managed to create an opportunity for yourself (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Getting married or divorced: Marriage symbolizes the strong connection between the two opposites. The message from this dream suggests that you are trying to marry two pretty different aspects of your life (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Ghost: Dreaming about a ghost means that you have unfinished business. If you see people as ghosts that are alive in real life, don’t worry; that doesn’t imply their death in the near future. If you see a ghost of someone who is dead, it is possible that the dream implies that there is a part of yourself that you can’t fully understand (Merilin, Garrett. 2021). 


House burglary: This symbolizes that something uninvited is interfering with your individual boundaries in daily routine. It is a signal for a situation that makes you feel insecure about the idea of allowing someone to come into your life (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Hunted by ghosts: Even if you try to escape, you cannot. The meaning of this dream is that a habit/memory from your past is back to” haunt” you. It has locked up a possibly important part of your personality. Rather than letting yourself be frightened by it, you need to confront it (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Kidnapped by a gang: Dreaming of that symbolizes you involving a group of people in waking life that seem to be making unreasonable requests in regards to your time and experience (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Meeting an old friend: When you dream of meeting an old friend, you are becoming familiar with the personal quality that you have somehow lost touch. This dream is drawing your attention to the opportunity of putting your goals into action (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Meeting dead relatives: Dreaming of that symbolizes that you are experiencing a change in your individual consciousness in your life. You recreate your past one’s in your dreams by using memories and your experiences of their individual characteristics (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Naked in public: Dreaming of that means there is a situation in your awake life that makes you feel vulnerable and exposed. Someone who is entering a situation that is new to him and where they feel a lack of confidence in their abilities, often experience this dream (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Ocean: The dream interpretation of an ocean (or sea) suggests that you repress some of your unconscious emotions, feelings, and urges. This changes your attitude and reactions in your day-to-day life (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Office: If you work in an office, it is possible that the dream is connected with your work. However, that’s not always the case; it may be related to another aspect of your life, such as particular issues or emotions (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Pregnancy: Dreaming of pregnancy symbolizes an extended time of waiting for the fulfilment of a project in your daily life (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Rain: Dreams with rain can suggest that you release emotions and the positive liberation of your feelings. If you are soaking wet by rain, the dream indicates that you overreacted to something in your daily life and that sometimes you are driven by your emotions. If the rain turns into hail, it can indicate it is possible to be a victim of verbal abuse (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Riding: Riding a bike, a motorcycle, or horse (or another animal) is associated with your intimate and love life. It may indicate that you feel fulfilled, and if you enjoy the ride, that you may experience a love affair. If you are afraid of falling down, it may symbolize that you feel unable to commit to a partner, or that you feel sexually inhibited (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Sinking into the water: The meaning of water in dreams symbolizes your feelings. When you are stepping into the water, the dream suggests that you are entering into pretty emotional events (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Surrounded by snakes: The dream interpretation suggests that you are facing plenty of opportunities to change yourself in your everyday life. Snakes symbolize possibilities for development and often describe your ability to grow and develop in waking life (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Trapped in a lift: This dream symbolizes frustration about your upward progress in a particular profession (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Threatened by a spider: The more you can train and explore your fundamental needs, the more you will be able to feel satisfied. This dream alerts that you are worried about being emotionally entangled in a particular situation in your life (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Teeth falling down: This dream interpretation is related to how strong and confident you feel in your daily life. It could be that something is challenging and causing you to lose confidence in your ability to deal with it (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Unprepared for an exam: Dreaming of that usually symbolizes that you are critically observing your performance in your daily life. It could be that you have set yourself some standards that you think you need to achieve in order to be noticed and appreciated by other people in daily life (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Unknown street or city: wondering about new opportunities to make your mark (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Vaccination:  Vaccination or injection with something in a dream means that you lack enthusiasm in your life. It can symbolize that you are trying to protect yourself from unwanted emotions. A syringe can have a sexual undermining, too. It can imply that sometimes you need to give up something to get out something better (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Vampire: The vampire dream can symbolize that some circumstances of your life are sucking out life from you and that you need to figure out what’s going on. It can be a partner, a friend, a family member that’s trying to control your life (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Virus: Dreaming of a virus means that you are afraid of being influenced by others. Some ideas or thoughts are causing irritability in you, and taking suggestions, and negative attitudes from others might be affecting you (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Winning the lottery: This dream symbolizes that you became more aware of something unique that you own. It could be a skill or talent. Being conscious of that often opens new opportunities, and the more you value your skills, the more possibilities you will face (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Watched: If you dream that you are being stalked by a predator, it proposes that you are concerned about

becoming occupied by a part of your personality that appears dangerous and uncontrollable to you. You are frightened that your behaviour might become uncontrollable, and others will reject you for being too dangerous and disruptive (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


Zoo: A zoo symbolizes that you feel caged in real life and certain abilities that are unnoticed by others (Merilin, Garrett. 2021).


REPORTORIAL VIEW (Kent, J.T. 2014):

DREAMS

RUBRIC

IMPORTANT MEDICINES

Animals


Sleep, dream, animals

ARN, phos, puls, sil, lyc, merc, nux-v.


Animals, Bite

Sleep, dream, animals, bite which

merc, puls, phos.


Black animals, Beasts


Sleep, dream, animals, black, beast

puls

Another person lying in bed

Sleep, dream, person lying in bed

Petr.

Autopsies

Sleep, dream, autopsies

rumex

Arrested of being

Sleep, dream, arrested

Clem, mag-c

Battels

Sleep, dream, battels

sil, thuja, stram, sulph.

Body embedded

Sleep, dream, body embedded

Carb- ac

Knees swollen

Sleep, dream, knees swollen

coccu

Limbs broken

Sleep, dream, limbs broken

cimici

Bulls chased


Sleep, dream, bulls chased by

ind, tarent.

Burials

Sleep, dream, burials

alum, hura.

Buried alive, being

Sleep, dream, buried alive

arn, chel, ign.

Cats

Black

Sleep, dream, cats

Sleep, dream, cats, black

puls, arn, ars, cal-p, daph, nux-v, graph, merc, lac-c.

Daph

Chased and had to run backwards

Sleep, dream, chased, had to run

sep

Child had been beaten


Sleep, dream, child been beaten

kali-n.


Children about

Sleep, dream, child about

kali-n, mag-c, merc.

Coffins

Sleep, dream, coffins

brom, merc-i-f.


Comical (happy)

Sleep, dream, comical

glon, sulph.


Accidents

Sleep, dreams, accidents

Ars.Graph


amorous

Sleep, dreams, amorous

All are in 1st grade Am-m., Lach., Nat-c. Ph-ac, StaphViol-t.


awake, while

Sleep, dreams, awake

Acon., ign.,   op., petr., phos., sep., sil., sulph.


blind, that he was

Sleep, dreams, blind

phys

business, of


Nux-v., Rhus-t.,


busy

Sleep, dreams, busy

Bry

Cutting, of being a knife

Sleep, dreams, cutting

Guai

Seeing Cutting a person

Sleep, dreams, cutting, seeing

Merc

darkness

Sleep, dreams, darkness

Ars, Aur.

dead, of the

Sleep, dreams,dead

Ars, Mag-c., Thuj.


dead, bodies

Sleep, dreams, dead bodies

Anac.

dead, bodies, smell of

Sleep, dreams, dead bodies, smell

Cal c.

friends long deceased

Sleep, dreams,

Arg-n., ferr.,nat-c.


death, of

Sleep, dreams, death

Lachesis

own, his, and orders the rapid removal of the corpse from the house

Sleep, dreams, death his own

Fl. ac

disease

Sleep, dreams, disease

Nux. vom

Dogs


Sleep, dreams, dogs


Black

frightened by a black dog

bitten by, of being

arn.,  sil., sulph., 

puls

Calc., lyss., merc., sulph., verat.

drinking

Sleep, dreams, drinking

Dros., med.


drowning

Sleep, dreams, drowning

Alum., bov., ign., lyc., merc., rumx., sil., verat., zinc.


earthquake

Sleep, dreams, earthquake

Rat, sil.

Eating

Sleep, dreams, eating

Iodum.

face covered with pustules

Sleep, dreams, face covered

Anac

falling

Sleep, dreams, falling

High places

Bell., Thuj.,

Thuj.

fire

Sleep, dreams, fire

Anac., Hep., Laur.Mag-c.Mag-m.

flying

Sleep, dreams, flying

Apis., lyc., nat-s., xan.


ghosts, spectres,

black

fighting

pursued

white

Sleep, dreams, ghosts

graph., kali-c.,  sulph.

Ars.

Sars., sep.

Sil.

Sars.


hair, falling out

Sleep, dreams, hair fall

Mag. c

hung, of being

Sleep, dreams, hung

Am.m

journey

Sleep, dreams, journey

Kali. n

jumping

Sleep, dreams, jumping

verat

lion, that he was a

Sleep, dreams, lion

phys

Men, naked

nakedness

Sleep, dreams, men naked

Eupi., puls.

Rumx.

Money

of gold

Sleep, dreams, money

Alum., cycl., mag-c., mag-m., phos., puls.

cycl., puls.

Pregnant

Sleep, dreams, pregnant

Pic- ac

Robbers

and cannot sleep until the house is searched

Sleep, dreams, robbers

Alum., Mag-c., Nat- m

Nat- m


rape, threats of

Sleep, dreams, rape, threats

sep

Rats

Sleep, dreams, rats

sep

skeletons

Sleep, dreams, skeletons

Opium.

Snakes

of being bitten by

Sleep, dreams, snakes

arg-n.,  lac-c.,  ran-s.

Bov

spiders

Sleep, dreams, spiders

Cinnb., crot-c.


storms

Sleep, dreams, stroms

Ars, sil.

suicide

Sleep, dreams, suicide

naja

teeth, breaking off

falling out

pulled out

Sleep, dreams, teeth

Kali-n., ther., thuj.

Cocc., nicc., nux-v., tab.

Nat-m.


thirsty

Sleep, dreams, thirsty

Nat. mur

urinating

Sleep, dreams, urnating

kreos.,seneg., sep., 

vermin

Sleep, dreams, vermin

Nux. v

warts

Sleep, dreams, warts

mez

Water

Black

Sleep, dreams, water

Am. M.

Ars

funerals


Sleep, dreams, funerals

chel

vomiting

Sleep, dreams, vomiting

Chin


DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:

The association between dreaming and REM sleep and sleep laboratory techniques have opened new field in study of dreams. Dreams have been studied from different perspectives: psychoanalysis, academic psychology, and neurosciences. The hypothesis stating that dreams reflect waking-life experiences is supported by studies investigating the dreams of psychiatric patients and patients with sleep disorders, i.e., their daytime symptoms and problems are reflected in their dreams (Schredl, M. 2010). In a study Lucid dreaming has been concluded to be a dissociated state with aspects of waking and dreaming combined in a way so as to suggest a specific alteration in brain physiology, particularly in frontal lobe (Voss, U. et al., 2009). It has also been suspected that the hippocampus contributes to dreaming, due to its close association with memory. According to one estimate, about half of all dreams contain at least one element originating from a specific experience while the subject was awake (Fosse, M. J. et al., 2003). Recent work in the cognitive neurosciences has established that the hippocampus, in addition to being involved in the formation of memories, is also part of a brain system that is involved in using memory


to construct imagined scenarios and simulate possible future events (Hassabis, D. et al., 2007). Like memory and imagination, a vivid dream requires the construction of detailed, memory-based imagined scenes – and this process appears to depend on the hippocampus (Wamsley, E.J. 2020).  Dream physiology suggests the role of CNS and importance of dreams in the regulation of behaviour. According to a body of current research, dreams potentiate new pathways of problem solving. A review of the neuro-physiological literature suggests dreams are sustained by midbrain anatomical networks with feed-back and feed-forward links to the cortex. It is explained by the fact that ordinary thought is the province of the dominant or left hemisphere and dreams are the province of the non-dominant or right hemisphere and during REM sleep new pathways of problem solving are laid down by the non-dominant hemisphere. In the awake state, thought and behaviour about content that relates to dream material follow these pathways. This neuropsychology of dreams explains the central role of dreams in the organization of affect, emotion, intention, and general adaptation (Van den Daele, L. 1996). 

The explanation of pathway of dreams is well described by modern fraternity, but its applicability in treating patients is still under consideration. In homoeopathy we consider the patient as a whole and take under evaluation most striking and important symptoms to construct totality. Dreams are an important representation of human psychology which has got an immense value in homoeopathy to understand the patient. It not only helps in selection of medicine but also guides physician to help in counselling of the patients, which is an inseparable part of therapeutics. 


Though there are numerous medicines covering different types of dreams in homoeopathy, but there are few literature and research works done on it. Further study and comprehensive analysis on dreams and changes in psychosomatic presentation with application of homoeopathic medicines are hereby envisioned.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: None


CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None declared


REFERENCES:

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