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Go Back       IAR Journal of Entrepreneurship, Innovation & Design Thinking | IAR J Ent Desg Thnk. 2(2) | Volume 2 Issue 2 ( March 30, 2021 ) : 1-5
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DOI : 10.47310/iajeidt2020.v02i02.001       Download PDF       HTML       XML

Assessment of Constraints to Cassava Value Chain Development in Ifeodun Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria


Article History

Received: 08.03.2021; Revision: 14.03.2021; Accepted: 23.03.2020; Published: 30.03.2021

Author Details

Paul A.B1, Ajiboye G.E2, Oyinlola K.T3, Ogunsola Y.D4 and Ajibade L.A5

Authors Affiliations

1Department of Bioentrepreneurship & Training Services, Bioresource Development Centre, Ilorin, Nigeria

2Extension Management Division, Department of Rural Development and Gender Issues, Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute (ARMTI), Ilorin, Nigeria

3Enterprise Development Management Division, Department of Rural Development and Gender Issues, Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute (ARMTI), Ilorin, Nigeria

4Rural Infrastructure and Institution Development, Division, Department of Rural Development and Gender Issues, Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute (ARMTI), Ilorin, Nigeria

5Agricultural Extension and Farming System Department, National Horticultural Research Institute


Abstract: Owing to the contribution of cassava being a major staple food to rural household food security, this study assessed the constraints to cassava value chain development in Ekiti local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria. Primary data were used and collected through the use of a well-structured questionnaire. A two stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 cassava base farmer respondents. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyzed the data.


Keywords: Products, Infrastructure, Villages, Farmers.


INTRODUCTION

Cassava (Manihotesculenta) is a root crop with enlarged underground roots. It is a very important source of starchy food. Cassava serves as a major staple food to many peopleas it is eaten raw or in processed form. A staple, as defined by International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA, 2007) is one that is eaten regularly and which provide a large proportion of the population’s energy and nutrients.Cassava is an essential part of the diet of more than 70 million Nigerians (Food and Agricultural Organization, 2003).It has the ability to grow on poor soil and also to grow when there is drought (Nweke, Spencer and Lynam, 2002). This is because cassava roots can be stored in the ground for a long time.


The important contribution of cassava to food security cannot be over emphasized. Itcan be used for different purposes and its derivatives can be processed to produce many types of products such as foods, sweeteners, glues, garri, and drugs. Cassava chips and pellets are products used in animal feed and alcohol production. Mand and Ordia (2007), explained that two third of the total cassava production are used as food for human consumption with less amount being used for animal feed and industrial purposes. Also, 80 percent of Nigerians depend on the subsistence cassava production and they eat cassava meal at least once a day and its carbohydrate content is about 40% higher than rice and 25% more than maize (Nyerhorwo, 2004). Thus, it is the cheapest source of calories for both human and animal consumption.


Cassava production is concentrated in the hands of poor smallholders who cultivate less than 2 hectares of land using rudimentary tools and equipment both in the cultivation, processing, harvesting and marketing processes. Bad roads linking cassava farm and processing centers, poor storage facilities, lack of infrastructure, inadequate land preparation or land tenure system and mechanization technology are all constraint to cassava production in our country Nigeria (Yakasai, 2010).Mohammed et al, (2010) states that level of profitability being observed was due to lack of viable market, pest and diseases, lack of credit facilities as well as carrying out propagation with use of local stem varieties.


Cassava is one of the beneficial staple foods which have encountered some constraints that have made it to be supplied in lower quantity. This is as a result of the subsistence farming system being carried out by the local farmers, who uses farm implements like hoes and cutlass in cultivation which limits the production rate and leads to high labour intensively. The local farmers lack capital to invest in cassava production to stimulate increase in yield, also pest and diseases have contributed to lower yield, coupled with the lack of good storage facilities to help improve the shelf life of the produce, lack of improved stem cutting which also reduce their production rates, poor agricultural inputs and lack of mechanized farming possess a lot of problems, Lack of access to healthy and improved planting material.


Lack of favourable policy environment to stimulate farmers and other stakeholders to promote production, utilization and marketing of cassava as both a food crop and a commercial crop has hampered its production and utilization of cassava in the food and



animal feed, land acquisition, unattractive price and labour shortage. The main objective of the study is to assess the constraints to cassava value chain development in Ifelodun local government area of Kwara state, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study are to examine the socioeconomic characteristics of the farmers, and determine the production, processing and marketing constraints of cassava farmers in Ifelodun local government area.


Research hypothesis

H0: There is no significant relationship between the socio–economic characteristics of farmers and their constraints to cassava value chain development.


METHODOLOGY

The study was carried out in Ifelodun local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria. Ifelodun Local Government Area was created in 1976 with the headquarters in “Share”. It shares common boundaries with Asa, Edu, Isin, Irepodun, Ilorin South, Moro and Oyun Local Government Areas of Kwara state as well as Yagba West Local Government Area of Kogi state. Ifelodun is the largest local government area in Kwara state with an estimated population of about 206,042 and an estimated total land of about 3,435km (NPC, 2006; KWSMI, 2002). It is characterized by dry and wet season. The annual rainfall extends across the state between the months of April and October and between 1,000 and 1,500mm while daily temperature ranges between 21.1°C to 25°C with maximum temperature ranging from 30°C to 35°C. Cassava production is prominent in the local government. A two-stage sampling technique was used to select the respondents for the study. The first stage involves a random selection of six (6) villages in the local government area. The second stage involves random selection of twenty farmers from each of the six villages making a total of One Hundred and Twenty (120) farmers selected for the study. Data for the study were collected using interview schedule. Descriptive statistics and chi-square were used in the presentation of result.


Results and Discussion

Socio-economic Characteristics of Respondents

Table 1 present the result of the socio economic characteristics of the respondents. The result revealed that few (5.8%) of the cassava farmers are below 20 years of age, 21.7% are in the age bracket 21-30, 22.5% are in the age bracket 31-40, majority 34.2% are in the age bracket 41-50 years, and the remaining 15.8% fall within the age bracket 51 years and above. The age range of 41-50 years has the highest frequency (Table 1). This indicates that majority of the cassava farmers are not in their active working years. This implies that most of the cassava farmers sampled are in their non-productive age and this has a negative influence on them thereby leading to constraints to cassava production, processing and marketing. As shown in Table 1, majority (56.7%) of the cassava farmers were female, while 43.3% were male. This is an indication that more females than males are involved in the cassava farming in the study area


According to the result in table 1, 52.5% of the cassava farmers are married. This indicates that most of cassava farmers in this locality are responsible people and they all have families. 25% of the cassava farmers are single while the remaining 12.5% of the cassava farmers are widows. The household size (33.4%) of the cassava farmers range between 1-5 while 27.5% of them have household size range of 11-15. The household size of the cassava farmers are fairly large implying that there are may be availability of family labour for their farming activities. Few (29.2%) of the cassava farmers had primary education, 35.8% had secondary education, 20.8% had tertiary education while14.2% had no formal education. Also, that 20.8% of the respondents have tertiary education is a clear indication that literate people are going into the cassava farming and are taking it up as a business due to the enormous potentials in cassava farming. Table 1 shows that 25% of the cassava farmers had less than 5 years’ experience and majority (73.3%) have below 5 hectares of cassava farm. This shows that most of them are small scale farmers.

Table 1: Social Economic Characteristics of Respondents

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Age



Below 20

7

5.8

21-30

26

21.7

31-40

27

22.5

41-50

41

34.2

Above 51

19

15.8

Sex



Male

52

43.3

Female

68

56.7

Marital status



Single

31

25.8

Married

63

52.5

Divorced

11

9.2

Widow

15

12.5

Household size



1-5

40

33.4

6-10

31

25.8

11-15

33

27.5

Above 15

16

13.3

Educational level



No schooling

17

14.2

Primary

35

29.2

Secondary

43

35.8

Tertiary

25

20.8

Farming experience



Less than 5

30

25

5-10

63

52.5

Above 10

27

22.5

Extension agent contact



No

117

97.5

Yes

3

2.5

Farmland size(Hectare)



5

88

73.3

6-10

17

14.2

>10

15

12.5

Total

120

100

Source: Field survey, 2019

Constraints to Cassava Value Chain Development

Production constraint

The result in table 2 reveals that most (44.8%) of the farmers strongly agreed that lack of finance is the major constraint to cassava production while 22.5%strongly agreed that lack of stem cutting is a constraint. There are difficulties in obtaining credit facilities, lack of collateral required to

Secure loan, high cost of inorganic fertilizer, high cost of agro chemicals, high cost of the modern processing equipment and the farmers lack money to engage in the manufacture and purchase of other products. The result is consistent with the study of Ezedinma, Kormawa, Adekunle and Okechukwu (2002).

Table 2: Production constraints in cassava production

Variable

SA (%)

A (%)

U (%)

D (%)

SD(%)

Mean

SD

Lack of capital

55(45.8)

27(22.5)

4(3.3)

27(22.5)

7(5.9)

3.7833

1.42

High transport cost for input

36(30.0)

41(34.2)

17(14.2)

16(13.3)

10(8.3)

3.6167

1.33

Lack of stem cutting

27(22.5)

30(25.0)

30(25.0)

23(19.2)

10(8.3)

3.3167

1.31

Infestation of pest and diseases

32(26.7)

34(28.3)

20(16.7)

23(19.2)

11(9.2)

3.4167

1.37

Poor storage problem

39(32.5)

27(22.5)

16(13.3)

23(19.2)

15(12.5)

3.4083

1.480

Inadequate labour

38(31.7)

33(27.5)

26(21.7)

11(9.2)

11(10)

3.5917

1.350

Unstable agricultural policy

36(30.0)

30(25.0)

20(16.7)

17(14.2)

17(14.2)

3.4000

1.46

Poor power supply

45(37.5)

24(20.0)

25(20.8)

8(6.7)

18(15)

3.5583

1.48

Source: field survey, 2019 *Figures in paretheses represent percentages


Processing constraint

Table 3 shows that majority (33.3%) of the respondents strongly agreed that high perishability is a major processing constraint limiting farmers in the study area with a mean of 3.39. also, 14.1% of the respondents strongly agreed that sun drying (30.8%), inadequate water supply (28.3%), and lack of Machine spare parts (14.1%) are major constraints to cassava processing. Other constraints have varying degree of agreement as constraints among the farmers. This is an indication that the perishable nature of cassava is a serious impediment to its processing among the farmers.


Table 3: Processing constraints in cassava value chain development

Variable

SA (%)

A (%)

U (%)

DA (%)

SD (%)

M

SD

Sun drying

37(30.8)

31(25.8)

12(10.0)

16(13.3)

24(20)

3.5000

2.87

Lack of machine spare parts

17(14.1)

41(34.2)

27(22.5)

19(15.8)

16(13.3)

3.1667

1.39

Problem of water supply

34(28.3)

28(23.3)

20(16.7)

21(17.5)

17(14.2)

3.2833

1.59

Long period of fermentation

24(20)

26(21.7)

29(24.2)

15(12.5)

26(21.7)

2.9833

1.61

High processing cost

35(29.1)

33(27.5)

13(10.8)

16(13.3)

23(19.2)

3.2333

1.74

Poor access to equipment

30(25)

32(26.7)

23(19.2)

15(12.5)

20(16.7)

3.2500

1.58

High perishability of cassava

40(33.3)

28(23.3)

16(13.3)

17(14.2)

19(15.9)

3.3917

1.26

Source: field survey, 2019 *Figures in paretheses represent percentages

Marketing constraints

Table 4 shows that farmers strongly agreed that fluctuation in price (40.8%) closely followed by high transport cost for cassava products (38.3%) are major constraints to cassava marketing. Also, 16.7% strongly agreed that poor access to market is a constraint. Lack of

infrastructure and inadequate technology are all constraints to cassava production in Nigeria (Yakasai, 2010). According to (Nwekeet al., 2002; Teklewoldet al., 2006) the cost of transporting the product from the farm to the processing centers is very high thereby making the farmers not to be able to purchase the raw materials.

Table 4: Marketing constraints in cassava value chain development

Variable

SA (%)

A (%)

U (%)

DA (%)

SD (%)

Mean

SD

Lack of market information and infrastructure

45(37.5)

41(34.2)

10(8.3)

12(10.0)

12(10)

3.7500

1.42

Inaccessibility of market for sale of cassava

29(23.6)

37(30.8)

23(19.2)

19(15.8)

12(10)

3.7083

3.87

Lack of good transport service

36(30.0)

36(30.0)

17(14.2)

13(10.8)

18(15)

3.4417

1.51

High transport cost for cassava products

46(38.3)

31(25.8)

14(11.7)

13(10.8)

16(13.)

3.5917

1.55

Poor access to market

20(16.7)

50(4.7)

12(10.0)

20(16.7)

18(15)

3.1750

1.54

Fluctuation in price

49(40.8)

33(27.5)

18(15.0)

7(5.8)

13(10.8)

3.7417

2.49

Source: Field survey, 2019. *Figures in paretheses represent percentages


Test of Hypothesis

The result in table 5 indicates the Chi square analysis showing relationship between farmers’ socio economic characteristics and their level of constraints. The finding revealed that there were significant relationships between constraints to cassava production, processing and marketing and respondents’ age (χ2 =6.1, p =0.0), level of education (χ2 =10.5, p = 0.02), farming experience (χ2 =46.04), p = 0.00), farming system (χ2 = 14.02, p = 0.01), farmland acquisition (χ2 = 25.23, p = 0.00), source of capital (χ2 = 22.45, p = 0.00), and cassava variety (χ2 = 17.88,p = 0.00). Respondents’ sex, marital status, household size, contact with extension agent, extension agent contact time, farm size and source of capital are not significantly related with the constraints (p >0.5).


Table 5: Chi-square analysis showing relationship between socio-economic characteristics of farmers and cassava value chain development

Variable

χ2 value

Df

Cc

PV value

Age

6.1*

4

0.34

0.00

Sex

3.41

2

0.16

0.18

Marital status

7.21

4

0.24

0.13

Household size

8.89

4

0.26

0.06

Education

10.50*

3

0.28

0.02

Farming experience

46.04*

4

0.53

0.00

Farming system

14.02*

4

0.32

0.01

Contact with extension agent

1.32

2

0.10

0.52

Extension agent contact time

5.24

4

0.21

0.25

Farmland acquisition

25.23*

5

0.42

0.00

Farm size

6.40

5

0.23

0.27

Source of capital

22.45*

4

0.40

0.00

Cassava variety

17.88*

2

0.36

0.00

Source of cassava

5.17

3

0.20

0.16

Source: Field survey, 2019. *Sig. at 0.05 level.

Conclusion and Recommendations

The study concluded that hindrances to cassava production, processing and marketing has reduced the production and processing of cassava by the farmers, leading to insufficient cassava products in the market places. Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made:

  • Adequate infrastructural facilities such as electricity and good roads should be provided in order to reduce the cost of transportation of cassava and its products to different places for easy marketing of farm produce.

  • Government policy such as the credit liberalization should be put in place to enable the farmers increase their farm land sizes and purchase planting materials that are of good quality.

  • Farmers should endeavour to form a cooperative group for them to help each other and not to rely solely on the government.


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