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Go Back       IAR Journal of Business Management | IAR J Bus Mng, 2021; 2(1): | Volume:2 Issue:1 ( Jan. 5, 2021 ) : 21-31.
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DOI : 10.47310/iarjbm.2021.v02i01.003       Download PDF       HTML       XML

I AR Journal of Business Management
ISSN Print: 2708-5139 | ISSN Online: 2708-5147
Frequency: Bi-Monthly
Language: English
Origin: Kenya
Website: https://www.iarconsortium.org/journal-info/IARJBM

Research Article

The Influence of Leadership Style And Work Environment on Organization Performance Through Motivation in The Department of Population and Civil Registration Dki Jakarta Province


Article History

Received: 28.11.2020

Revision: 25. 12.2020

Accepted: 29. 12.2020

Published: 05. 01.2021

Author Details

Erlita Faskho*1, Imam Wibowo1 and Partogi Saoloan Samosir1

Authors Affiliations

1Universitas Krisnadwipayana Campus Unkris Jatiwaringin PO BOX 7774/Jat CM Jakarta 13077, Indonesia


Corresponding Author*

Erlita Faskho

How to Cite the Article:

Erlita Faskho, Imam Wibowo and Partogi Saoloan Samosir (2021); The Influence of Leadership Style And Work Environment on Organization Performance Through Motivation in The Department of Population and Civil Registration Dki Jakarta Province. IAR J Bus Mng; 2021; 2(1): 21-31.

Copyright @ 2020: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non commercial use (NonCommercial, or CC-BY-NC) provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract: This study aims to determine the effect of leadership style and work environment on organizational performance through motivation at the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta. This research was conducted using data collection methods by distributing questionnaires to as many as 64 people at the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta. The sample research was carried out using a stratified random sampling technique using the Slovin formula at a precision of 10% to obtain a total sample of 64 respondents. Hypothesis testing is done using path analysis techniques. This study proves that the leadership style and work environment have a significant effect on the motivation of employees of the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta. Leadership style and work environment have a significant impact on the organizational performance of the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province. Work motivation affects organizational performance. This means that the higher the work motivation of employees in completing work can improve organizational performance.


Keywords: Leadership Style, Work Environment, Motivation, and Organizational Performance.


Introduction

Organizational performance is essential for the organization itself because organizational performance is a description of the results of the organization's work in achieving its objectives, which of course, will be influenced by the resources owned by the organization. Organizational performance is the ability to carry out the tasks assigned to the organization and possibly, adequate to achieve the goals that have been agreed upon.


Performance is a product of administrative activities, namely collaborative activities to achieve goals whose management is commonly referred to as management. An organization is a group of people (two or more) formally united in collaboration to achieve predetermined goals. So organizational performance is the work obtained within an organization in achieving predetermined goals.


As for what is meant by organizational performance, according to Bastian (2005: 175) is "a description of the level of achievement of task implementation within an organization in realizing the goals, objectives, vision, and mission of the organization. Meanwhile, according to Mahsun (2006: 25), performance is "a description of the level of achievement of implementing an activity/program/policy in realizing the goals, objectives, mission, and vision of the organization as stated in the strategic planning of an organization."


Organizational performance is "the totality of the work achieved by an organization. The achievement of organizational goals means that an organization's performance can be seen from the extent to which the organization can achieve objectives based on predetermined goals" (Surjadi, 2009: 7). Resources that can be physical such as human or non-physical resources such as regulations, information, and policies. The concept of organizational performance also illustrates that every public organization provides services to the community and can measure its performance using existing performance indicators to see whether the organization has carried out its duties properly and to find out whether its objectives have been achieved or not.



From the above definition, it can be understood that organizational performance is the level of ability to carry out organizational tasks to achieve goals following the capabilities possessed and the programs/policies/vision and mission that has been previously set. The organization's definition of performance is the answer to the success or failure of the organizational goals that have been set. Agencies often do not pay attention to the performance of agencies or organizations unless it is already deplorable.


In public organizations, it isn't easy to find suitable performance measurement tools. When examined from the primary purpose and mission of a public organization is to meet the needs and protect the public interest. The performance measurement of public organizations looks simple, but this is not the case because there has been no agreement on the performance measurement of public organizations until now.

The Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province is one of the SKPDs that deal with population issues. Based on the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 23 of 2006 concerning Population Administration, it is stated that the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia is practically obliged to provide protection and recognition of the determination of personal status and legal status for each population event and important events experienced by Indonesian residents who are inside and outside the territory of the Republic of Indonesia. There are still many public services weaknesses at the Department of Population and Civil Registration of the Province of DKI Jakarta. They cannot meet the quality expected by the community. This is indicated by the fact that there are still various public complaints conveyed through the mass media so that it can create a bad image of the government apparatus. Public complaints can also be submitted using the Integrated Citizen Relations Management (CRM) Complaint System to improve local government services to the community.


Based on the Regulation of the Governor of the Special Capital Region of Jakarta Province Number 263 of 2016 concerning the Organization and Work Procedure of the Population and Civil Registration Service of the DKI Jakarta Province, Chapter I General Provisions Article 1 The Head of Service is the Head of the Population and Civil Registration Service for the Special Capital Region of Jakarta Province where the duties and functions are is to lead and coordinate the implementation of the duties and functions of the Department of Population and Civil Registration, so it can be seen clearly that the progress and decline of an organization depend on quality at one essential point. The role of a leader is very influential in his leadership in an organization. If the leadership is good, the service will be good, but if the leadership is not good, it will cause fear, laziness, hatred, and lack of enthusiasm for the subordinates they lead. From any point of view, the leader is always placed in an organization or group, vital. Because in this role, a leader will help the organization to realize its vision and mission. Therefore, a leader's effectiveness in using the influences determines how the leader can play his role well.


For this reason, leaders must always be honed and developed to adapt to the situations they face, whether the case comes from subordinates, superiors, or the organization in which he is located. It can be seen here that a leader's important when carrying out his leadership can empower himself before empowering others. In the realm of leadership, three things must be developed by a leader. Namely, a leader must lead himself, lead people, and lead tasks. Effectiveness in carrying out leadership must start from yourself. There is no way a leader who fails to make himself useful will succeed in making other people or work effectively. Talking about personal effectiveness, like it or not, a leader must have the ability to determine the identification of his potential. The ability to identify this will provide a strong enough provision for a leader to develop himself. So that if the leadership role that is being carried out is dependent on the position and more due to the influences that come from his capacity.


A government organization will succeed or even fail largely determined by the leadership. A noble expression that says that the leader is responsible for the failure to implement a job is an expression that places the position of leader in a government organization in the most important position. A leadership role is very strategic and important for achieving a government organization's mission, vision, and goals. It is one of the motives that encourages humans to always investigate the intricacies related to leadership. This has the consequence that every government leader is obliged to pay serious attention to fostering, mobilizing, and directing all the potential employees in their environment to realize the volume and workload of work. Goal-directed.


A good leader is a leader who is an example and a leader who can be a role model for his subordinates. Such a leadership style will automatically lead to work motivation for his subordinates. Leaders who have a wise spirit and do not just take orders but also pay attention to their subordinate employees' suggestions can foster inspiration, work culture, attitudes, and discipline in employees in carrying out their service duties. Leaders who can become real role models for their subordinates will motivate good work and are willing to learn continuously and get along well with subordinates without discrimination, which will lead to high work motivation for their subordinates.


The leadership style and work motivation of subordinates have a significant influence on service effectiveness to society. The office leadership style that serves the community's interests must be balanced with employees' work motivation who are directly assigned because these civil servants are the spearheads who give impressions to customers and touch the community every day.


Work environment factors, more or less, determine the performance of an employee. It needs a different treatment to create a good working environment. The work environment consists of two, namely a physical work environment and a non-physical work environment. In simple terms, it can be described. The physical work environment includes everything tangible and felt by employees, such as equipment, equipment, and office layout. Some examples are good spatial management, lighting, air exchange/ventilation, a technology used, and noise levels. The non-physical work environment, in general, can be described as a working atmosphere that is not physically visible, such as a sense of security at work, the relationship between the leader and subordinates, and fellow workmates. Organizations with a regular and comfortable work environment both physically and non-physically will increase employee motivation to improve performance. A work environment that is maintained conducive will help employees reduce boredom and fatigue so that gradually it will improve employee performance and organizational performance.


The Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province continues to create good working conditions. Based on the results of observations made by researchers, there are still limitations in realizing a comfortable working environment. This can be seen from the workspace layout that is not yet up to standard, such as narrow spaces (absence of adequate front office and back office space), waiting rooms that are not accommodating the number of applicants who came, the absence of archive space so that the pile of KTP, KK, and Birth Certificate applications around the employees' work desks.


The motivational factor also determines the performance of an employee. Based on the regulations concerning the discipline of the State Civil Apparatus it is also regulated in Government Regulation (PP) Number 53 of 2010 concerning Civil Servant Discipline, which in Article 3 paragraph 11 states that every civil servant is obliged to come to work and comply with the provisions of working hours. Article 7 regarding the levels and types of disciplinary punishment, there are 3 (three) levels of corrective punishment: mild, moderate, and severe disciplinary punishment. One indicator in assessing work discipline can be through the employee absentee level. Based on the results of researchers' observations, there are still employees who come late, employees who have not completed their work according to the target.


Research conducted by Suminar (2015) discusses the influence of leadership style and work environment on organizational performance, suggesting that the leadership style affects the success and improved performance. Through a leadership style, a leader manages the institution and motivates employees to improve their performance. Through a leadership style, a leader manages the institution and encourages employees to improve their performance.


Successful leadership styles are (1). The leadership style adopted is based on conscience, norms, ethics, freedom, trust, supervision, readiness to accept criticism, constructive, assertive, and respecting creativity, innovation, and motivation. (2). This leadership style impacts improving performance, including increasing professional competence, increasing personal competence, and increasing social competence. Meanwhile, according to Sari's research (2016), if the work environment and work motivation are right, the resulting performance will also be useful. The work environment can create a binding work relationship between the people in the environment.


Therefore, efforts should be made so that the work environment must be excellent and conducive. A good and conducive work environment makes employees feel at home in the room and feel happy and excited to carry out their duties to form job satisfaction. From the employee's satisfaction, the employee's performance will also increase. So basically, if the organization wants to achieve optimal performance according to predetermined targets, the organization must motivate employees so that employees are willing and willing to devote their energy and thoughts to improve organizational performance.


Literature Review

Leadership Style

The problem of leadership has arisen at the same time as human history since humans realized the importance of living in groups to achieve common goals. They need someone or several people who have advantages over others, regardless of what form of a human group is formed. This cannot be denied because humans always have certain limitations and advantages. Leadership is an activity to influence people's behavior to work together towards a specific goal that they want together. In other words, leadership is the ability to control a group to achieve the group's goals.


Leadership comes from the word "leader," which contains two main things: a leader as a subject and an object. The word "leader" includes the meaning of directing, building or managing, guiding, and also showing or influencing. Leaders have a responsibility both physically and spiritually for the success of the person they lead. Being a leader is not easy, and everyone will not have the same in carrying out their leadership.


The difference in who is from the effort to influence, the ways Robbins (2010: 2) uses that influence, argues, "leadership as the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals" that leadership can be defined as a person's ability to influence a group towards the achievement of goals.


In succeeding leadership in organizations, leaders need to think about and pay attention to the leadership styles applied to their employees. A superior leadership style can influence employee success in achievement and will lead to organizational success in achieving its goals (Suranta, 2002). Leaders need to think about the most appropriate leadership style, namely a leadership style that can maximize performance and is easy to adapt to all organizational situations. Leadership style is a method, pattern, and certain abilities used by a leader to behave, communicate, and interact to influence, direct, encourage and control other people or subordinates to do a job to achieve a goal.


Motivation

Motivation is a drive from within as a reason for working morale in doing something or directing behavior. Companies or organizations need highly motivated human resources to provide good performance and enthusiasm to achieve high work performance. Mangkunegara (2014: 93) argues that motivation is to move employees to achieve the goals of their motives. According to Kadarisman (2012: 276), motivation as a driving force or driving behavior towards achieving goals is a cycle consisting of three elements: the need, the urge to act or act, and the desired goals.


Work Environment

The work environment is a factor that indirectly affects employee performance. A conducive work environment provides a sense of security and enables employees to work optimally. The work environment has a direct influence on employees in completing responsibilities to the organization or company. Suppose an employee enjoys the work environment where he/she works. In that case, the employee will feel at home to carry out their activities and complete their duties or responsibilities. The work environment includes work relationships formed between fellow employees, work relationships between subordinates and superiors, and the physical environment in a company or organization.


According to Sedarmayanti (2013.: 21), the physical work environment is all physical conditions around the workplace that can affect employees either directly or indirectly. The physical work environment can be divided into two categories, namely:

  1. The environment that is directly related to employees (such as work centers, chairs, tables, and so on)

  2. The intermediate environment or general environment can also be called the work environment, which affects the human condition, for example, temperature, humidity, circulation, air, lighting, noise, unpleasant smells, colors, and so on.


According to Sedarmayanti (2013: 31) states that a non-physical work environment is all conditions that occur that relate to work relationships, both with superiors and with colleagues or relationships with subordinates.


Organizational Performance

Performance is a word in Indonesian from the root word "work," which translates the word from a foreign language, namely achievement. It could also mean the results of the work. The concept of performance can be defined as the level of achievement of results. Performance can also be a result (output) of a particular process carried out by all organizational components on certain sources used (input). Furthermore, performance is also the result of a series of process activities carried out to achieve certain organizational goals. For an organization, performance results from collaborative activities among members or organizational components to achieve organizational goals.


Performance is a product of administrative activities, namely collaborative activities to achieve goals whose management is commonly referred to as management. An organization is a group of people (two or more) formally united in collaboration to achieve predetermined goals. So organizational performance is the work obtained within an organization in achieving predetermined goals.


According to Keban (2004: 43) states that "performance in an organization is defined as the level of achievement of the results" the degree of accomplishment "or performance is the level of achieving organizational goals on an ongoing basis." According to Steers (2009: 67), the definition of organizational performance is "the level that shows how far the actual implementation of tasks can be carried out and the organization's mission is achieved." Meanwhile, according to Mahsun (2006: 25), performance is "a description of the level of achievement of implementing an activity/program/policy in realizing the goals, objectives, mission, and vision of the organization as stated in the strategic planning of an organization."


From the above definition, it can be understood that organizational performance is the level of ability to carry out organizational tasks to achieve goals following the capabilities possessed and the programs/policies/vision and mission that has been previously set. The organization's definition of performance is the answer to the success or failure of the organizational goals that have been set. Agencies often do not pay attention to agencies or organizations' performance unless it is already very poor.









Research Methods

Location and Time of Research

This research's object is the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province. The time of the research was carried out between November 2019 and March 2020.


Research Design

This type of research uses associative research methods. Associative research is research that aims to determine the relationship between two or more variables. Associative research has the highest level when compared to descriptive and comparative analysis. The relationship between variables can be illustrated in the following diagram:

Figure 1. Overall Path Analysis


Population and Sample

The population is a general area consisting of objects or subjects with a quantity and character determined by the researcher for research and conclusions made (Sugiyono, 2014). The sample is a portion of the population that represents the entire population (Surakhmad, 1990). The population in this study the authors determine only employees with undergraduate education at the of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province, a total of 178 people considering that the population has occupied a minimum position as section head who already has subordinates, and who knows about organizational performance. This method uses a sample of a random sampling of 64 respondents.


Data Collection Technique

Data collection is collecting primary data and secondary data, intending to obtain concrete and objective data. Research must be conducted on the problem under study. According to Sugiyono (2004), data collection methods commonly used in a study are questionnaires, observation, and interviews.










Research Results and

Discussion

  1. Analysis of the Influence of Leadership Style and Work Environment on Motivation

The regression analysis results of the influence of leadership style and work environment on motivation show the value of R2 (R Square) of 0.661. The value of R2 is used in calculating the value of the e1 coefficient. The coefficient e1 is a variant of motivation that is not explained by leadership style and work environment. The amount of the coefficient e1 = = = = 0,696.


The regression equation is as follows:

Y1 = b1X1 + b2X2 + e1

Y1 = 0,423 X1 + 0,351 X2 + 0,696 e1 ………...... (1)


The equation shows that:

  1. Every time there is an increase of 1 unit of leadership style, an increase will follow it in the motivation of 0.423.

  2. Every time there is an increase in 1 work environment unit, there will be an increase in motivation of 0.351.


So from equation (1), it can be seen that if the leadership style increases, motivation will increase. Likewise, with the work environment, if the work environment increases, motivation will also increase.




Figure 2. Equations of Sub Structure 1


Analysis of the Effect of Leadership Style and Work Environment on Organizational Performance through Motivation

The regression analysis results of the influence of leadership style, work environment, and motivation on the organizational performance show the value of R2 (R Square) of 0.534. The value of R2 is used in calculating the value of the e2 coefficient. The coefficient e2 is a variant of organizational performance that is not explained by leadership style, work environment, and motivation. The amount of the coefficient

e2 = = = = 0,601


The regression equation is as follows:

Y = b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3 + e2

Y = 0,352 X1 + 0,300 X2 + 0,245 X3 + 0,601 e2 …. (2)


The equation shows that:

  1. Every time there is an increase in 1 unit of leadership style, an increase in organizational performance will be followed by 0.352.

  2. Every time there is an increase in 1 work environment unit, an increase in organizational performance will be followed by 0.300.

  3. Every time there is an increase in 1 motivation unit, an increase in organizational performance will be followed by 0.245.


So from equation (2), it can be seen that if the leadership style increases, organizational performance will increase. If the work environment improves, organizational performance will also increase. Likewise, with motivation, if motivation increases, organizational performance will also increase.

Figure 3. Substructure Equation 2

Based on equations (1) and (2), a path analysis model is obtained.


Figure 4. Path Analysis Model







Hypothesis Test

The Effect of Leadership Style and Work Environment on Motivation

The analysis of the influence of leadership style and work environment on the F-count value found was 32.432. Using the real level α = 5% (0.05), with the numerator degrees of freedom = 2 and the denominator degrees of freedom = 61, F-count and F-table's value will be compared. From this information, the value of F5 was obtained, namely F5% (2_61) = 3.15. Thus F-count> F-table (32.432> 3.15), H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted at that real level. This concludes that leadership style and works environment influence motivation in the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province.


Testing the influence of leadership style on motivation is done through the t-test. The t-test results for the leadership style variable obtained t value = 3.308 with a significance level of 0.000, using a significance limit of 0.05 obtained t-table of 2,000. This means t count> t table (3.308> 2,000), which means that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. Thus, it can be concluded that leadership style influences employee motivation in the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province, where the impact is positive, meaning that increased leadership style can increase motivation.


Testing the influence of the work environment on motivation is done through the t-test. The results of the t-test for the work environment variable obtained the value of t count = 2.741 with a significance level of 0.005, using a significance limit of 0.05 obtained t table of 2,000. This means t count> t table (2,741> 2,000), which means that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. Thus, it can be concluded that there is an influence of the work environment on employees' motivation in the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province, where the effect is positive, meaning that the improvement of the work environment can increase motivation. Thus the first hypothesis is statistically tested.

The Effect of Leadership Style and Work Environment on Organizational Performance

The analysis of the effect of leadership style and work environment simultaneously on organizational performance found that the value of F-count was 35.376. Using the real level α = 5% (0.05), with the numerator degrees of freedom = 3 and the denominator degrees of freedom = 60, the value of F-count and Ftable will be compared. From this information, the value of F5 was obtained, namely F5% (3_60) = 2.76. Fcount> Ftable (35.376> 2.76), H0 is rejected, and H1 is accepted at that real level. This concludes that leadership style, work environment and motivation simultaneously influence motivation in the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province.


Testing the influence of leadership style on organizational performance is done through the t-test. The results of the t-test for the leadership style variable obtained t value = 2.912 with a significance level of 0.000, using a significance limit of 0.05 obtained t table of 2,000. This means t count> t table (2,912> 2,000), which means that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. Thus, it can be concluded that there is an influence of leadership style on organizational performance in the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province. The influence is positive, meaning that increased leadership style can improve organizational performance.


Testing the influence of the work environment on organizational performance is carried out through the t-test. The results of the t-test for the work environment variable obtained t value = 2.543 with a significance level of 0.045, using a significance limit of 0.05 obtained t table of 2,000. This means t count> t table (2.543> 2,000), which means that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. Thus, it can be concluded that there is an influence of the work environment on organizational performance in the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province. The impact is positive, meaning that the work environment's improvement can improve organizational performance. Thus the second hypothesis is statistically tested.


The Influence of Motivation on Organizational Performance

Testing the influence of motivation on organizational performance is done through the t-test. The results of the t-test for the motivation variable obtained t value = 2.199 with a significance level of 0.021, using a significance limit of 0.05 obtained t table of 2,000. This means t count> t table (2.199> 2,000), which means that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. Thus, it can be concluded that there is an influence of motivation on organizational performance in the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province. The effect is positive, meaning that increased motivation can improve organizational performance. Thus the third hypothesis is statistically tested.


The Effect of Leadership Style on Organizational Performance through Motivation

The results of the analysis of the influence of leadership style on organizational performance through motivation based on calculations with path analysis in Figure 4. (Path Analysis Model) are:

X1 → X3 → Y = (ρX1X3) x (ρX3Y)


The indirect effect's value is obtained from the path coefficient value ρX1X3 multiplied by the path coefficient value ρX3Y to (0.423 x 0.245) = 0.104. The multiplication result shows that the coefficient value of the indirect effect is 0.104. While the value of the direct influence between ρX1Y is 0.352. This shows that the indirect effect's value is smaller than the direct effect coefficient, namely (0.104 <0.352), and the total effect is 0.352 + 0.104 = 0.456.


Based on the path analysis results, it shows that the variable of leadership style can go through the mediating variable, namely motivation in influencing organizational performance because the total effect value is greater than the direct effect. Thus the fourth hypothesis is statistically tested.


The Effect of Work Environment on Organizational Performance through Motivation

The results of the analysis of the influence of leadership style on organizational performance through motivation based on calculations with path analysis in Figure 4. (Path Analysis Model) are:


X2 → X3 → Y = (ρX2X3) x (ρX3Y)


The indirect effect's value is obtained from the path coefficient value ρX2X3 multiplied by the path coefficient value ρX3Y to (0.351 x 0.245) = 0.086. The multiplication result shows that the coefficient value of the indirect effect is 0.086. Meanwhile, the value of the direct impact between ρX2Y is 0.300. This indicates that the value of the indirect effect is smaller than the value of the direct effect coefficient, namely (0.086 <0.300), and the total effect is 0.300 + 0.086 = 0.386


The results of the path analysis show that the work environment variable can go through the mediating variable, namely motivation in influencing organizational performance because the total effect value is greater than the direct effect. Thus the fifth hypothesis is statistically tested.


Discussion

The Effect of Leadership Style and Work Environment on Motivation

Leadership style affects motivation, which means that the better the application of leadership styles in the organization can increase motivation. The leadership style indicator that makes the most significant contribution to increasing motivation is the employee on time making civil registration documents. An organization's success depends on the leadership style, namely the leadership's ability to optimize human resources. The application of an effective leadership style can foster employee motivation to achieve organizational goals because good leaders understand that motivating employees is very important in achieving organizational goals. According to Thoha (2006), leadership style is a behavior norm used by a person when that person tries to influence others or subordinates' behavior. Leadership is the process of influencing activities in a group directed towards achieving one or several goals. In empowering human resources, to produce professional employees with high work motivation, it is necessary to have a reference that can be used as a guide by the organization in solving a problem. Leaders can be a reflection for employees in the organization. Suppose the leadership is quality so that there will be many good things created in the company, such as harmonious relationships. In that case, its development is faster, and working conditions are more productive. Leaders must be able to integrate the needs of their subordinates with the needs of the organization and society's needs through leadership duties that encourage subordinates to have competence and opportunities to develop in anticipating every challenge and opportunity at work. So that the leader's ability to mobilize and empower employees will affect employee motivation. Leadership style is individual behavior, which will have consequences such as influence, motivation, and decision-making patterns by employees. Employees will volunteer to do work to achieve goals to be achieved. A leader must have the ability to influence subordinates in carrying out their work to achieve organizational goals effectively and efficiently.


The work environment affects motivation, which means that a better work environment can increase motivation. A work environment that is guaranteed safety and health can trigger employees to work because of the peace when carrying out various tasks that are their responsibilities. This environment usually emphasizes the physical condition of the place. Measuring instruments for the condition of the place include air circulation, lighting, noise, unpleasant odors, and internet and network media, meaning that all of these can affect employees when carrying out activities. According to Nitisemito (2002: 25), the work environment is everything around the workers that can influence him/her in carrying out the assigned tasks. Although the workspace is a place where employees spend time every day, it must be comfortable; a clean work environment must be guaranteed health. With a healthy work environment, employees can work comfortably and do their best to achieve organizational goals so that it impacts improving organizational performance.


The Effect of Leadership Style and Work Environment on Organizational Performance

Leadership style has a significant effect on organizational performance. The leadership style possessed by a leader in an organization is one of the determinants of organizational performance. Leadership style is the leader's style or attitude in dealing with or ordering subordinates to improve organizational performance. Leadership style is related to a person's deliberate process to emphasize his strong influence on others, guide, structure, facilitate activities and relationships in groups or organizations. An organization's success in achieving its goals depends on leadership, which is to mobilize all human resources, natural resources, facilities, funds, and time effectively and efficiently and integrated into the management process. Therefore, leadership style is at the core of the organization, management, and administration. Without good leadership, the organization will not run well, and each employee's performance will not be achieved either. As Baron (2011: 300) opinion states, one of the factors that influence organizational performance is the factor of leadership. This shows that the leadership style has a vital role in achieving the goals that have been set. Therefore, a leader must have extensive expertise and knowledge obtained through self-development. The results of this study are in line with Wibowo et al (2016), which state that leadership style affects performance.


The work environment affects organizational performance, which means that the right working environment can improve organizational performance. Suppose the created company environment considers aspects of the work environment, including air circulation, lighting, noise, unpleasant odors, and the application of internal media and networks in the workplace. In that case, the goal is to achieve high organizational performance. A conducive work environment can provide a sense of comfort in employees always to provide the best results from employees in the organization. As Sedarmayanti (2001: 21) argues, physical work environments are all physical conditions that exist around the workplace, affecting employees either directly or indirectly. The work environment is the atmosphere or conditions around the workplace. The work environment can be in the form of space, layout, facilities, and infrastructure.


The Influence of Motivation on Organizational Performance

Motivation affects employee performance and affects organizational performance, which means that the higher motivation of employees can improve organizational performance. This shows that to improve organizational performance, the leadership must reduce absenteeism levels, increase employee productivity, reduce employee demands, reduce employee work anxiety, and reduce strikes. Thus, leadership is expected to always strive for employees' needs in the organization to be more adequate to feel comfortable working. Besides that, leadership is always expected to create a harmonious relationship with employees to feel comfortable completing work.


Besides, leaders are expected to have a good and fair assessment of employees' performance to be promoted because every employee yearns to be promoted. After all, promotion is seen as an acknowledgment of employees' success showing high work performance in fulfilling their obligations in the job and in the position they currently hold. Appreciation for work can come from two sides, from the leadership and the employees themselves. Award from the leadership in the form of promotion. This is following Mangkunegara (2014: 93) opinion, which states that motivation is to move employees to achieve the goals of their motives. Employee motivation starts from the need, desire, and urges to act to achieve needs or goals. This indicates how strong the drive, effort, intensity, and willingness to sacrifice to achieve goals. In this case, the stronger the motivation, the higher the performance. Without motivation, an employee cannot fulfill the obligations and duties given by the leadership. The resulting work is not following what the organization has set.


The Effect of Leadership Style on Organizational Performance through Motivation

Motivation can mediate the influence of leadership style on organizational performance, which means that leadership style can improve organizational performance if employees have high motivation to complete work. The leadership style plays an important role in an organization—the leader who will determine how the future of an organization is through the decisions he makes. As a person who is followed by his subordinates, the leader must be able to move and direct his subordinates to achieve organizational goals. Therefore, leaders must be able to motivate employees to stay motivated in carrying out their duties. Motivation plays an important and useful role as a driving force in achieving the goals, including the organization's goals. Employees do a business because of the motivation or motivation to complete the work. Motivation can be generated by leaders who can motivate employees so that employees will have high work motivation so that it has an impact on improving organizational performance. As the opinion of Hasibuan (2014), leadership style is a way for leaders to influence their subordinates so that they are willing to work together and work productively to achieve organizational goals. The leadership wants employees to work hard, achieve targets, complete reports according to deadlines, and always arrive on time according to applicable regulations. But to motivate employees to do so, a leadership style is needed, which is very influential on employee motivation. Leadership style is a way for a leader to influence subordinates, expressed in the form of behavior or personality patterns.


The Effect of Work Environment on Organizational Performance through Motivation

Work motivation can mediate the work environment's influence on organizational performance, which means that organizational performance can be improved if it has a good work environment. Employees have high work motivation to complete work. The work environment that is reflected in the work space with adequate lighting can increase comfort so that it can produce work in accordance with organizational standards, the work space with hot air can reduce comfort so that it cannot produce work according to organizational standards, soft chairs create a sense of comfort at work, clean work equipment can make you feel comfortable so that it can produce work that is in accordance with organizational standards, facilities in the workplace area (tables and chairs) that are not clean can make you feel uncomfortable at work so that you cannot achieve optimal performance and can motivate employees as reflected in coming and coming home from work as determined, employee opinions are often asked by colleagues and superiors to complete work, employees have an important and decisive role for the achievement of all targets organization, workers are satisfied with the procedures, systems, professionalism of human resources leadership, and work facilities in the workplace, employees carry out task initiatives so they can do work more easily, superiors' trust in the completion of daily tasks is important, in providing guidance, superiors use feedback on the problems raised by the leadership encourages employees to be creative and innovative in dealing with work constraints, complaints from the applicant become the responsibility to be resolved quickly and awards from the leadership for work are important rewards for workers, so that it affects the improvement of organizational performance as reflected in the group inputs, processes, outputs, results, benefits and impact groups. Organizational performance is an indicator of the level of achievement that can be achieved and reflects organizational success. It is the result achieved from the behavior of employees in the organization. The organization's work results in carrying out its duties within a certain period, whether related to input groups, processes, outputs, results, benefits and impact groups with responsibility, can facilitate the direction of organizational structuring and achieve an efficient and effective increase in organizational performance.


CONCLUSION

Based on the results of the research that has been done, the researcher can draw the following conclusions:

  1. Leadership style and work environment have a significant effect on employees' motivation of the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province. This shows that implementing a good leadership style supported by a comfortable and safe work environment can increase motivation.

  2. Leadership style and work environment have a significant effect on the organizational performance of the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province. This shows that a leadership style that is well implemented and supported by a pleasant working environment can improve organizational performance.

  3. Work motivation affects organizational performance, which means that employees' work motivation in completing work can improve organizational performance.

  4. Leadership style affects organizational performance through motivation at the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province. This shows that a well-implemented leadership style can improve organizational performance if employees have a high motivation to work.

  5. The work environment affects organizational performance through motivation at the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province. This shows that a safe and comfortable working environment can improve organizational performance if employees have a high motivation to work.


Suggestion

Based on the results of the research and discussion, the author tries to provide suggestions that might be followed up as follows:

  1. For the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province

    1. The leadership style that has been applied in the organization is maintained because it is proven to increase work motivation and organizational performance.

    2. It is better if the Department of Population and Civil Registration of DKI Jakarta Province always creates a safe and comfortable work atmosphere to complete work according to the specified time.

  2. Future researchers can develop more in-depth research on leadership style and work environment and motivation that can have a good influence on organizational performance.


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