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Go Back       IAR Journal of Business Management | IAR J Bus Mng, 2020; 1(4): | Volume:1 Issue:4 ( Nov. 25, 2020 ) : 354-361.
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DOI : 10.47310/iarjbm.2020.v01i04.020       Download PDF       HTML       XML

The Effect of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture on Employee Performance with Motivation as Intervening Variables: Study at the Secretariat of the Ministry of Cooperation and SMEs


Article History

Received: 25.10.2020; Revision: 04. 11.2020; Accepted: 19. 11.2020; Published: 25. 11.2020

Author Details

Siti Maesyaroh*1, Bomer Pasaribu1 and Guswandi1

Authors Affiliations

1Universitas Krisnadwipayana Campus Unkris Jatiwaringin PO BOX 7774/Jat CM Jakarta 13077, Indonesia


Abstract: This study aims to determine transformational leadership and organizational culture on employee performance with motivation as an intervening variable. This research was conducted at the planning bureau at the secretariat of the SME cooperative ministry. The sample-set was 73 respondents with sampling using the purposive sampling method. Measurement in the questionnaire used a Likert scale, the data analysis method used was path analysis, and to test the effect of mediation, the researcher used the Sobel test. The hypothesis testing results show that (1) transformational leadership and organizational culture have a positive and significant effect on the motivation of employees of the secretariat unit of the cooperative and SME ministries. (2) transformational leadership and organizational culture have a positive and significant effect on employees' performance of the secretariat unit of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs. (3) work motivation variable affects employee performance, which means that the higher the work motivation level can improve employee performance. (4) transformational leadership also affects employee performance through motivation at the secretariat unit of the cooperative and SME ministries. (5) organizational culture affects employee performance through motivation at the secretariat unit of the cooperative ministry and SMEs. The motivation variable in this study proves as a variable that can mediate transformational leadership and organizational culture in influencing employee performance, so the result is transformational leadership, organizational culture, and employee performance through motivation have a significant effect on performance in the secretariat unit of the cooperative and SME ministries.


Keywords: Transformational leadership, organizational culture, employee performance, and motivation.


Introduction

In achieving organizational goals, many elements are essential in fulfilling them, including employee performance, leadership, organizational culture, and motivation. Employee performance helps the company in achieving short-term and long-term goals. Employee performance is the ultimate goal and is a way for various leaders to ensure that employee activities and outputs align with organizational goals. Mathis and Jackson (2006) state that performance is basically what employees do or don't do in carrying out their jobs. According to Gibson (2008: 123-124), the factors that influence performance are individual variables consisting of abilities and skills, background, and demographics. The second factor affecting performance is psychological variables consisting of perceptions, attitudes, personality, motivation, job satisfaction, and job stress. Meanwhile, the third factor influencing performance is organizational factors comprised of leadership, compensation, conflict, power, organizational structure, job design, organizational design, and career.


If not appropriately managed, the available resources will not be able to achieve the organization's goals. So, the role of a leader is significant who can use his authority and leadership to achieve organizational goals. Leadership can positively influence people and systems to positively impact and achieve the desired results (Gaspersz, 2007: 35). In addition to the leadership shown by a leader to provide direction to subordinates, another important and must be understood by a leader to manage his associates is that managing employees is difficult and complicated because employees have heterogeneous feelings, status, desires, and backgrounds, brought into the organization. Employees cannot be managed like machines, capital and buildings, employees, and the organization's precious assets. One way to integrate these two things is to motivate employees.


Motivation is a state in the individual's personality that encourages the individual's desire to carry out certain activities to achieve a goal, according to McClelland in Reksohadiprodjo & Handoko (2001: 252). With this motivation, leaders can encourage potential employees to work productively to achieve employee goals and organizational goals. Organizations expect skilled, capable, and capable employees, but the essential thing is employees who are willing to work hard and achieve maximum work results. Employee motivation is necessary to be noticed by an organization. When viewed more deeply, one of the essential things from human resource management that needs to be appropriately considered by organizations is motivation. Without sufficient reason, the performance of existing human resources will be less than optimal.


The harmful impact of a lack of motivation from the leader can ultimately reduce the organization's performance. It can also lead to increased complaints from the public, causing employees to be lazy to work, and possibly leading to physical and psychological actions, such as increasing the degree of absenteeism and employee turnover. Motivation always gets excellent attention from leaders/superiors because reason is a source of driving for employees. The goal of work motivation is to help the organization achieve strategic success while ensuring work progress while also encouraging employees to improve employee performance. In an organization, it is also necessary to consider a habit carried out by the organization in carrying out its activities. An organization's personality, called organizational culture, has systems, value patterns, and symbols of practices that have developed throughout the organization's ages. Organizational culture is formed by individual values ​​and intrinsic matters ​​related to one another and positively impact the emergence of organizational culture practices, which are also influenced by attitudes, personal behavior, and collective behavioral attitudes.


According to Robbins (2003), organizational culture is a system of shared meaning held by members that differentiate an organization from other organizations. This system of shared sense, if observed more closely, is a set of main characteristics valued by an organization. Organizational culture development due to work attitudes, work behavior, individual/employee work results, and the accumulative Influence is forming a work culture. Work culture is an attitude of life-based on the value of a life view that has become the nature, habit, and driving force that is entrenched in the life of a group/society/organization reflected in behavior, beliefs that manifest as work or work. Suppose this work culture is developed in the management process. In that case, it will foster an attitude that is oriented towards group responsibility, willingness to participate / coordination, group awareness, mutual respect, and work commitment. However, there are still obstacles in developing organizational culture and work culture in practice due to negative attitudes and behaviors. However, with high management commitment and the essence of leadership that is aware of the need for group development, this can be overcome by finding a match, alignment between the relationship between the personal needs of organizational members and the interests of the organization.


Literature Review

Employee Performance

Hasibuan (2001: 134) argues that performance results from a person's work in carrying out the tasks assigned to him based on skill, experience and seriousness, and time. Performance is work performance or job performance, which is defined as job performance, namely the results achieved by a person according to the size applicable to the job concerned (As'ad, 2004: 48).


Meanwhile, a manager does not have to focus on the results achieved by employees and needs to see the process of an employee at work. According to Gibson (2008: 123-124), the factors that influence performance are individual variables consisting of abilities and skills, background, and demographics. The second factor affecting performance is psychological variables consisting of perceptions, attitudes, personality, motivation, job satisfaction, and job stress. Meanwhile, the third factor influencing performance is organizational factors comprised of leadership, compensation, conflict, power, organizational structure, job design, organizational design, and career.


Furthermore, Hasibuan (2006: 94) argues that performance results from a person's work in carrying out the tasks assigned to him based on skills, experience and seriousness, and time. Performance is a combination of three essential factors, namely the ability and interest of an employee, the ability and acceptance of the task delegation's explanation, as well as the role and motivation level of an employee, and the higher the three factors above, the greater the performance of the employee concerned. So it can be said that understanding is a manifestation of employees' work and is usually used as a basis for appraising employees or organizations. Remembering or not performance depends on whether it is appropriate or not with the assigned task and the predetermined time.


Performance, according to Simanjuntak (2011), is the aggregation or accumulation of the performance of all organizational units which comes from the collection of an individual account, which is the level of achievement or a person's work results from the goals that must be achieved or tasks that must be carried out within a particular time. Performance is a description of the work performance in achieving goals, which, of course, will be influenced by the resources possessed by the organization. The resources in question can be physical, such as human and non-physical resources, such as regulations, information, and policies. To better understand the factors that can influence performance, the concept of performance also illustrates that every public organization provides services to the public and can be carried out By using the existing performance indicators to see whether the organization has done its job well and also to find out whether the objectives that have been set have been achieved or not.


According to Mathis & Jackson (2006: 378), performance indicators say that performance is basically what employees do and don't do. The performance indicators in this study are as follows:

  1. The quantity of work given by the leadership to employees/amount of work in a section.

  2. Quality of work results, namely assessing whether or not the employee's work is good.

  3. Timeliness, in completing tasks, employees are required not only to complete their work quickly but also to be precise or follow their superiors' expectations.

  4. Attendance with attendance shows the morale of the employees.

  5. Ability to work with colleagues from one part or another.


Transformational Leadership

Suryo (2010) describes transformational leadership as "leadership to inspire and motivate followers to achieve more excellent results than initially planned and internal rewards. Transformational leadership is not just influencing followers to accomplish the desired goals, but more than that, it intends to change its followers' attitudes and fundamental values ​​through empowerment. The experience of empowering his followers increases his self-confidence to continue making changes even though he may be affected by the change.


Transformational leadership is defined as leadership where leaders use charisma, intellectual stimulation to transform and revitalize the organization. According to Hakim (2011), transformational leaders are more concerned with restoring their followers and the organization as a whole rather than giving top-down instructions. Also, transformational leaders position themselves more like mentors who are willing to accommodate their subordinates' aspirations. Meanwhile, according to Sucipto (2008), leaders are said to be transformational, mostly measured concerning leadership's effect on followers. Followers of a transformational leadership leader will feel a sense of trust, admiration, loyalty, and respect for him.


Leadership is the process by which a person or group of people (team) plays Influence over other people (section), inspires, motivates, and directs their activities to achieve goals or objectives. Leadership is the positive ability to influence people and systems to positively impact and achieve the desired results (Gaspersz, 2007: 35).

Based on some of the opinions of the figures above, it can be concluded that transformational leadership is leadership that can inspire, direct, and moves followers to make change through empowerment in achieving specific goals.


Indicators of transformational leadership according to Avolio et al (2004);

  1. Idealized Influence is a leader's behavior that makes his followers admire, respect, and at the same time, trust him.

  2. Inspirational Motivation. A leader who can articulate clear expectations for his subordinates' achievements, demonstrate his commitment to all organizational goals, and can inspire the team spirit in the organization through the growth of enthusiasm and optimism.

  3. Intellectual stimulation is a leader behavior that can generate new ideas, provide creative solutions to subordinates' problems, and motivate associates to seek new approaches in carrying out organizational tasks.

  4. Individual Consideration. Leaders relate to others (subordinates) personally, consider their needs, abilities, and aspirations, listen attentively, advise, teach, and train.


Organizational Culture

According to Robbins (2003), organizational culture is a shared meaning held by members that differentiate an organization from other organizations. This system of shared purpose, on closer inspection, is a set of critical characteristics valued by an organization. Organizational culture is concerned with how employees perceive an organizational culture's elements, not whether employees like the culture.


Meanwhile, according to Nawawi (2003: 283), the relationship between culture and organizational culture, that "organizational culture is a belief and values ​​that are the main philosophy that is firmly held by organizational members in carrying out or operationalizing organizational activities." Meanwhile, Nawawi (2003: 283) says, "organizational culture is a system of spreading beliefs and values ​​developed within an organization as a guide for its members' behavior." The indicators used to different organizational culture, according to Robins (2007: 26), are ten key characteristics that are the core of organizational culture, namely:

  • Member Identity, namely the identities of members in the organization, compared to the uniqueness in their respective workgroups or professional fields.

  • Grup emphasis, namely how much more emphasis is placed on collective work activities than individual work.

  • People focus, namely how far management decisions are taken to consider these decisions to the organization's members.

  • Unit integration, namely how far the units within the organization are conditioned to operate together.

  • Control, namely, how many rules, regulations, and direct supervision, are used to supervise and control employee behavior.

  • Risk tolerance, which is the encouragement for employees to be more aggressive, innovative, and have the courage to take risks.

  • Reward criteria, namely how much reward is allocated according to employee performance, compared to allocations based on seniority, favoritism, or other non-performance factors.

  • Conflict tolerance, which is how much employees are encouraged to be open to conflict and criticism.

  • Means-ends orientation, namely how much management places more emphasis on causes or results than on the techniques and processes used to develop products.

  • Open-system focus is how much the organization's supervision and response are given to changing the external environment.


Work Motivation

Motivation is a state in the individual's personality that encourages the individual's desire to carry out certain activities to achieve a goal, according to McClelland in Reksohadiprodjo & Handoko (2001: 252). A series of attitudes and values ​​that influence individuals to accomplish specific things following individual goals. Furthermore, performance will not work without a motive to achieve goals (Wibowo, 2008: 77-79). According to this theory, Hasibuan (2006: 162) states that employees have potential energy reserves. How energy is released and used depends on the person's strengths, drives, motivation, and available situations. The indicators used according to Maslow's hierarchy of human needs are as follows (Sunyoto, 2013: 2-3)

  1. Psychological needs, namely the need to eat, drink, shelter, and be free from illness. This need is a basic need to sustain life.

  2. Safety and security needs, namely the need for freedom from threats and guaranteed safety and protection against physical and emotional harm.

  3. Belongingness, social and love needs, namely the need for friendship, affiliation, interaction, and love, including affection, belonging, acceptance, and friendship.

  4. Esteem needs, namely the need for price and respect from others, including internal respect, self-esteem, autonomy, and achievement. External factors, such as status, recognition, and attention.

  5. Self-actualization needs, namely the need for self-satisfaction by maximizing potential, abilities, and skills. The drive to become what he can become includes growth factors, reaching his potential, and self-fulfillment.

Research Methods

Time and Location of Research

This research's object is in the Secretariat unit of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs, located in the study located at the Secretariat of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs at Rasuna Said Kav. 3-4 Kuningan South Jakarta. It is planned to start from March 2020 to June 2020


Population and Sample

The population is a generalization area consisting of objects/subjects with specific quantities and characteristics set by the researcher for the study and then conclude (Sugiyono, 2014). The sample used in this study were all employees of the Planning Bureau who are part of the Secretariat of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs, totaling 74 people from the population of employees of the Secretariat of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs, totaling 287 people. Sampling using a purposive sampling method. This sampling takes samples in a unit of analysis by paying attention to the model's same characteristics.


Research Result

Path Analysis

1. The Influence of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture on Motivation

The regression analysis results of the effect of transformational leadership and organizational culture on motivation show that the R Square value is 0.661. Score R2 This is used in calculating the value of the e1 coefficient. The coefficient e1 is a variant of motivation that is not explained by transformational leadership and organizational culture. The amount of the coefficient

e1 = = = = 0,686

Based on the results of the analysis, it can be seen that the regression equation is as follows:

Y1 = b1X1 + b2X2 + e1

Y1 = 0,481 X1 + 0,316 X2 + 0,686 e1 …...... (1)

The equation shows that:

  1. Every time there is an increase in 1 unit of transformational leadership, there will be an increase in motivation of 0.481.

  2. Every time there is an increase in 1 organizational culture unit, there will be an increase in motivation of 0.316.


So from equation (1), it can be seen that if transformational leadership increases, motivation will increase. Likewise, with organizational culture, if organizational culture increases, motivation will also increase.


Figure image is available in PDF Format

Figure 1. Equation of Sub Structure 1


  1. The Influence of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture on Employee Performance through Motivation

The regression analysis results of the effect of transformational leadership, organizational culture, and motivation on employee performance show the R Square value of 0.534. The value of R2 is used in calculating the value of the e2 coefficient. The coefficient e2 is a variant of employee performance that is not explained by transformational leadership, organizational culture, and motivation. The amount of the coefficient

e2 = = = = 0,566


Based on the results of the analysis, it can be seen that the regression equation is as follows:

Y = b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3 + e2


Y = 0,496 X1 + 0,194 X2 + 0,234 X3 + 0,566 e2 ………….. (2)


The equation shows that:

  1. Every time there is an increase in 1 unit of transformational leadership, an increase in employee performance will be followed by 0.496.

  2. Every time there is an increase in 1 unit of organizational culture, an increase in employee performance will be followed by 0.194.

  3. Every time there is an increase in 1 unit of motivation, an increase in employee performance will be followed by 0.234.


So from equation (2), it can be seen that if transformational leadership increases, employee performance will increase. If organizational culture improves, the employee's performance will also increase. Likewise, with motivation, if motivation increases, employee performance will also increase.

Figure image is available in PDF Format

Figure 2.Substructure Equations 2

Based on equations (1) and (2), a path analysis model is obtained.


Figure image is available in PDF Format

Figure 3. Path Analysis Model

Hypothesis Test

  1. The Influence of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture on Motivation

The analysis of the effect of transformational leadership and organizational culture on motivation found that F-count's value was 39.332. Using the whole level α = 5% (0.05), with the numerator degrees of freedom = 2 and the denominator degrees of freedom = 70, the value of F-count and Ftable will be compared. This information obtained the value of F5, namely F5% (2_70) = 3.13. F-count> Ftable (39.332> 3.13), H0 is rejected, and H1 is accepted at that whole level. This suggests that transformational leadership and organizational culture influence motivation in the Secretariat Unit of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs.

Testing the effect of transformational leadership on motivation is done through the t-test. The results of the t-test for the transformational leadership variable obtained the value of t count = 4.462 with a significance level of 0.000, using a significance limit of 0.05 received t table of 2,000. This means t count> t table (4,462> 2,000), which means that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. Thus, it can be concluded that there is an effect of transformational leadership on employee motivation in the Secretariat Unit of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs. The Influence is positive. It means that increased transformational leadership can increase motivation.


Testing the Influence of organizational culture on motivation is done through the t-test. The results of the t-test for the organizational culture variable obtained t value = 2.927 with a significance level of 0.005, using a significance limit of 0.05 received t table of 2,000. This means t-count> t-table (2.927> 2,000), which means that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. Thus, it can be concluded that organizational culture influences employee motivation in the Secretariat Unit of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs, where this Influence is positive, meaning that an increase in organizational culture can increase motivation. Thus the first hypothesis is statistically tested.


  1. The Influence of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture on Employee Performance

The analysis of the effect of transformational leadership and organizational culture simultaneously on employee performance can be seen in the F / Anova test table. The results of the F-test, it was found that the value of the F-count was 48.804. Using the whole level α = 5% (0.05), with the numerator degrees of freedom = 3 and the denominator degrees of freedom = 87, the value of F-count and F-table will be compared. This information obtained the value of F5, namely F5% (3_69) = 2.74. F-count> Ftable (48.804> 2.74), H0 is rejected, and H1 is accepted at that whole level. This suggests that transformational leadership, organizational culture, and motivation simultaneously influence motivation in the Secretariat Unit of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs.


Testing the effect of transformational leadership on employee performance is done through the t-test. The results of the t-test for the transformational leadership variable obtained t-value = 4.883 with a significance level of 0.000, using a significance limit of 0.05 received t-table of 2,000. This means t-count> t-table (4.883> 2,000), which means that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. Thus, it can be concluded that there is an effect of transformational leadership on employee performance in the Secretariat Unit of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs. The impact is positive, meaning that the increase in transformational leadership can improve employee performance.


Testing the Influence of organizational culture on employee performance is carried out through the t-test. The t-test results for the organizational culture variable obtained t value = 2.041 with a significance level of 0.045, using a significance limit of 0.05 received t table of 2,000. This means that t> t-table (2,041> 2,000), which means that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. Thus, it can be concluded that organizational culture influences employee performance in the Secretariat Unit of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs, where this Influence is positive, meaning that an increase in organizational culture can improve employee performance. Thus the second hypothesis is statistically tested.


  1. The Influence of Motivation on Employee Performance

Testing the Influence of motivation on employee performance is done through the t-test. The results of the t-test for the motivation variable obtained t value = 2.357 with a significance level of 0.021, using a significance limit of 0.05 received t-table of 2,000. This means t-count> t-table (2.257> 2,000), which means that H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. Thus, it can be concluded that there is an influence of motivation on employee performance in the Secretariat Unit of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs, where the effect is positive, meaning that increased motivation can improve employee performance. Thus the third hypothesis is statistically tested.


  1. The Influence of Transformational Leadership on Employee Performance through Motivation

The analysis of the effect of transformational leadership on employee performance through motivation based on calculations with path analysis are X1 → X3 → Y = (ρX1X3) x (ρX3Y). The indirect effect's value is obtained from the path coefficient value ρX1X3 multiplied by the path coefficient value ρX3Y to (0.481 x 0.234) = 0.113. The multiplication result shows that the coefficient value of the indirect effect is 0.113. Meanwhile, the amount of the direct Influence between ρX1Y is 0.496. This indicates that the indirect effect is smaller than the value of the coefficient of immediate impact, namely (0.153 <0.496), and the total impact is 0.496 + 0.113 = 0.609.


The results of the path analysis show that the transformational leadership variable can go through the mediating variable, namely motivation in influencing employee performance because the total effect value is greater than the direct effect. Thus the fourth hypothesis is statistically tested.


The analysis of transformational leadership paths on employee performance through motivation can be described as follows.

Figure image is available in PDF Format

Figure 4. Path Analysis of the Influence of X1 on Y through X3


  1. The Influence of Organizational Culture on Employee Performance through Motivation

The analysis of the Influence of organizational culture on employee performance through motivation based on calculations with path analysis are X2 → X3 → Y = (ρX2X3) x (ρX3Y). The indirect effect's value is obtained from the path coefficient value ρX2X3 multiplied by the path coefficient value ρX3Y to (0.316 x 0.234) = 0.074. The multiplication result shows that the coefficient value of the indirect effect is 0.074. Meanwhile, the amount of direct Influence between ρX2Y is 0.194. This indicates that the indirect effect's value is smaller than the immediate effect coefficient, namely (0.074 <0.194), and the total impact is 0.194 + 0.074 = 0.268.


The results of the path analysis show that the variable organizational culture can go through the mediating variable, namely motivation in influencing employee performance because the total effect value is greater than the direct effect. Thus the fifth hypothesis is statistically tested. Analysis of the pathway of organizational culture on employee performance through motivation can be described as follows.



Figure image is available in PDF Format

Figure 5. Path analysis of the effect of X2 on Y through X3

CONCLUSION

Based on the results of the research that has been done, the following conclusions can be drawn:

  1. Transformational leadership and organizational culture have a positive and significant effect on employees' motivation of the Secretariat Unit of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs. This shows that the application of good transformational leadership supported by a healthy organizational culture can increase motivation.

  2. Transformational leadership and organizational culture positively and significantly affect employee performance at the Secretariat Unit of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs. This shows that transformational leadership that is well implemented and supported by employees who have a strong organizational culture can improve employee performance.

  3. Work motivation affects employee performance, which means that the higher the work motivation level can improve employee performance.

  4. Transformational leadership affects employee performance through motivation at the Secretariat Unit of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs. This shows that transformational leadership that is appropriately implemented can improve employee performance if employees have a high motivation to work.

  5. Organizational culture affects employee performance through motivation at the Secretariat Unit of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs. This shows that employees who have a strong organizational culture can improve employee performance if employees have a high motivation to work.

SUGGESTIONS

Based on the results of the research, suggestions that can be followed up are as follows:

1. For the Secretariat Unit of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs

  1. To improve transformational leadership, it is better if the direction always teaches and trains subordinates, provides an example to be loyal to the organization and encourages employees to work better.

  2. Regarding motivation, the leader always has a mental attitude, not wanting to be smart himself but focusing on team learning, which means that all team members will become qualified or superior human resources because they have strong motivation to continue learning and apply what they have learned.

  3. It is recommended that the Secretariat Unit of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs places competent employees in their respective fields so that organizational goals can be achieved, always improving their abilities and expertise by including skills training according to the competency standards required by the organization.

  4. It is recommended that the Secretariat Unit of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs give awards for employees who excel by providing incentives or bonuses in promotions and salaries according to the workload.


  1. In an organization, it is necessary to continuously learn and become a Learning Organization, namely: an organization that implements continuous learning where employees will develop their capacity or abilities continually to create the desired results, an organization where new or broad patterns of thinking can be maintained, organizations where employees are free to express their aspirations, and organizations where employees continually learn together, the scope of change is not only in the main tasks and functions of the organization but also in the work culture which will again undergo significant changes.

All of this happened as part of an adjustment for changes to a more global scope. The difference is a certainty that cannot be avoided and will continue to occur. It requires all entities around the subject of change, both individuals and organizations, to always make continuous self-improvement to continue to exist in providing the best benefits and services for stakeholders.

It is necessary to apply discipline and thoroughness in employees' work activities and continue to look for ways to improve the quality, efficiency, or effectiveness of work processes. The organization encourages others to achieve continuous improvement, looking for, and implementing new ways (ideas, solutions, methods) to improve results and work processes. This is done through constant and significant improvement and involves changing the thinking paradigm, including trying different, new, and unusual (creative) ways.


  1. For further researchers, this research can develop using other methods in examining transformational leadership, organizational culture, motivation, and employee performance, for example, through in-depth interviews with respondents, so that the information obtained can be more varied than questionnaires whose answers are already available, and need to be Developing research related to digital leadership because it is a necessity these days, in addition to organizations becoming more solid, more focused, and faster to reach targets are the advantages of digital leadership.

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